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Negatives and Positives

There are many types of telescopes, the more popular ones being x-ray telescope, ultraviolet telescope, infrared telescope and optical telescope. X-ray telescope uses the range of wavelength of light shorter than ultraviolet. Ultraviolet telescope uses the range of wavelength shorter than the visible light. Infrared telescope uses the range of wavelength longer than the visible light. Optical telescopes use the visible light spectrum. Other types include the sub-millimeter telescope that uses wavelengths longer than infrared light, Fresnel Imager which is a specific technology for optical lens, X-ray optics which uses some wavelengths shorter than ultraviolet light. There are gravitational wave telescope and neutrino telescope as well.

While a telescope in general is in fact an optical device or instrument which helps in observing or seeing remote objects using electromagnetic radiation, an optical telescope uses the visible spectrum of light as seen or observed by the naked human eye. Optical telescopes gather and focus on visible light to form a magnified image of an object and allow a direct view. This visual can be in the form of a photo or moving images. Electronic image sensors can also be used to collect and analyze the data. Optical telescope has three variants. One type uses lenses and hence classified as refractors. One uses mirrors and hence classified as reflectors. The third type combines mirrors and lenses. These are called catadioptric telescopes.

List of Pros of Optical Telescopes

1. Affordable and Available.
Optical telescopes use mirrors or lenses or both. They work with visible light which is the easiest to observe. The materials and the mechanisms are among the simplest. Optical telescopes are cheaper to make and hence more affordable for buyers. The cost and also the nature of its use ensure it is a commonly used device. In other words, they are widely available. You would not have to ransack niche stores or look out for that one company in the world making the instrument.

2. Easy to Use.
Optical telescopes are very convenient to use. They used to be very large before but today you can get small portable ones. It is true that the smaller ones aren’t amazing because they capture very little light so the viewing pleasure is adversely affected. However, you can carry one around, use it anywhere or anytime. There is no restriction to carrying or using optical telescopes. You would need licenses for some types of telescopes.

3. Visual Treat.
Optical telescopes are a visual treat. You would get to see amazing live pictures or images of space, you can focus on a few stars or a cluster, you can look for specific planets or other celestial objects. You can use optical telescopes to capture images and you can then frame these photos for your family and friends to see. Other technologies used in telescopes offer images that may not mean much to most people.

List of Cons of Optical Telescopes

1. Challenge of Weather and Atmospheric Turbulence.
Optical telescopes use visible light which is almost always subject to the influence of local conditions, most notably weather. There are manmade or artificial influences that will impair how visible light is observed and understood but weather remains a larger threat. If direct line of sight is impaired, if the visible light is minimal or weather affects the quantum of light reaching the device then optical telescopes will not function even remotely as they do on a clear night sky. Also, the weather is not confined to the troposphere or stratosphere but spans ionosphere and exosphere before space events play spoilsport. Any kind of turbulence in the higher levels of the atmosphere can affect the light reaching the telescope.

2. Unusable during the Day.
Since visible light is the key component for optical telescopes to work, one has to depend on darkness. Daytime viewing is difficult as the mighty sun and its glorious light makes distant stars almost impossible to observe. Nighttime viewing is amazing but not everyone can stay up late at night for a celestial adventure.

3. Great Optical Telescopes are Big and Heavy.
The best optical telescopes are quite big in size. They are not easy to carry around. In fact, you can forgo portability. You will need to dismantle the whole piece, carry it in your car or van and then set it up at the site where you wish to be. This is both time consuming and laborious. The smallest ones have very little light reaching the lens, mirror or both so they don’t offer vast panoramas or vistas. The big ones or the more advanced ones are also heavy. Many are almost impossible for a single person to carry. Of course there are lighter variants but the big ones are usually installed at one place, not meant to be moved unless it is being shifted onetime to another observatory.

One of the easiest ways to learn something new, then it involves operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is one of the most common ways we learn something because when something happens, whether it’s good or bad, your mind is remembering the action. For example, if you ever burned your hand on the stove as a kid, you learned very quickly that if the stove was hot, that meant that you shouldn’t touch it. That is a prime example of operant conditioning. While it is good, it is not perfect, but it’s quite easy to learn very quickly that it has its positives and negatives.

Operant Conditioning Advantages

When it comes to advantages, you have to consider the fact that it’s the easiest natural way to learn something. It’s one of the best ways to train animals, also. Animals, especially dogs or pigs, tend to learn based on reward or punishment. When you reward an animal for doing something, you’re conditioning it to associate a given action with something positive.

If you hit the dog, you’re using operant conditioning to tell it something negative that it did. By using both of these principles, you’ll be able to successfully integrate the use of operant conditioning to do something positive. Now if you’re still having issues on the other end of the spectrum, it’s also entirely possible that you’re simple not cut out to use operant conditioning, but that’s something you’ll have to do on both ends to ensure that it’s actually positive.

Operant Conditioning Negatives

While it’s very effective, you have to understand that there are a lot of issues with operant conditioning. Many of these are issues that are very hard to trace outside of your given vicinity as well. If you’re having a lot of issues, you’ll have to keep in mind that operant conditioning, although easy, is often too simple to teach very complex concepts. Therefore, if you’re really trying to communicate a really complex or in-depth thing to someone else, you’ll have to be prepared to encounter a lot of issues.

If the same problem were to happen when trying to a concept to an animal or someone else, you’d have to recognize that the operant conditioning is also to blame. Unlike a lot of other methods of instruction, it’s definitely one of the best, but you’ll have to know how it works to use it effectively from top to bottom.

Times have changed a lot over the past just twenty or ten years. Today instead of booking flights and heading to cheap hotels, conference meetings with bosses and coworkers can happen from the comfort of your bedroom. Now you can sit in front of your screen, clad in a suit and tie, while wearing your plaid pajama bottoms! Although, as great as this all sounds, it does make one wonder what we’re losing from doing almost everything online. Now instead of talking with our coworkers and building strong relationships, the growing majority logs onto a computer database where assignments are assigned right there. So the next time you’re preparing for a conference, here are somethings to think about and what makes online conferences so awesome, but also what you risk losing as well.

Advantages of Online Conferencing

1. It’s no secret that being able to wake up late, avoid complicated flight routines and sleeping in your own bed are all advantages to online conferences. Not only is it more comfortable but it’s worlds cheaper.

2. The majority of workplaces don’t cover the fees of travel and lodge, leaving the costs on your shoulders.

3. Online conferences are a much cheaper alternative. Not only is it cheaper, but often times it’s much more flexible.

4. For some one on one work interviews, it makes it much easier to plan when two people can get in front of their computer screens instead of when those two people can meet up on the same day at the same place!

Disadvantages of Online Conferencing

1. Not everyone’s internet is great. That’s a given.

2. Now mix slow internet, with an old computer, a house full of kids and you’ve got yourself a nightmare situation! Not only are technical limitations an issue but, as stated earlier, work relationships don’t bud at all when your meeting each other on the screen, strictly talking about business.

3. In today’s day and age, relationships are becoming more and more shallow, with no depth.

4. This makes people feel even more alone. Talking with coworkers and building relationships no matter how intimidating or aggravating as it may sound it is still important. And with online conference calls it’s becoming more and more scare all together.

No matter what great inventions we have today or will create tomorrow, we’re always losing something. Whether it be friendships made or frustrating internet connections, we still face problems with even the most convenient of creations. So it’s up to you what you want to endure and avoid!

Everyone’s seen the adds and the campaigns. Smoking isn’t good. But to some it’s what gets them through stressful days or keeps them going on their long shift. Whoever you are it’s always good to know what’s better. Some would agree that smoking isn’t so bad, so long as you keep it under control and is only used to calm your nerves in a particularly stressful situation. While others would agree that not smoking would be the best solution, having good health and saving your money for more important endeavors are what matters to them. Let’s look at both sides, so you can decide which is better for you.


For some, a cigarette break is a must. Going out to take a break from constant tasks and work is best spent with something that can calm your nerves. And since a cup of piping hot herbal tea isn’t always available, a cigarette can be the next best thing for some. Helping with stress and anxiety, it’s a nice alternative when in comparison to spending your days worrying about every little thing. Many agree that as long as the habit stays under control and comes second when paying the bills in expenses, that smoking isn’t so bad.


While some struggle with anxiety, other’s argue that cigarettes make stress and anxiety worse. Saying there’s a difference between satisfying anxiety and making yourself more dependent on something that inadvertently gives you more anxiety when a cigarette is unavailable. To boot, the habit costs money, something lots of penny pinchers and savers alike don’t like at all. On top of the cost and the health risks it also makes finding a job in a professional high paying position that much harder, with many companies asking for nonsmokers, especially in the healthcare market and child care.

What it all comes down to is you. When it comes to smoking, it’s a good way to relax stress and to meet people on your smoke break. But with nonsmoking more jobs are made available and your more independent and healthy. The argument involving smoking and nonsmoking is not a new one to discuss. And sometimes, people are torn on whether to quit smoking or just allow the habit to run at a controlled pace. At the end of it all. It comes to what you’re willing to pay and if what you’re paying is worth it.

When you consider the concept of neoliberalism, it’s important to understand that politically, this is a movement that is still very recent in terms of the length of time it’s existed. Whereas things such as neoconservatism and others are relatively new in their own right, people are just starting to wake up to the fact that there are other forms of liberalism and conservatism, but neoliberalism is especially new. While it is constantly promoted and criticized at the same time, it’s important to understand it conceptually from top to bottom to really get a good idea of what the philosophy means politically speaking, and what we can do to ensure we have a complete idea of the positive and benefits of it.

Advantages of Neoliberalism

1. The Philosophy
For one, it’s important to understand that any philosophy that has the word “neo” in it implies that it is new. When it comes to neoliberalism, this is a brand-new ideology that has never before been seen. This means that unlike philosophies of old, there are actually new concepts and ideas being espoused. This is a great thing about it. This means that rather than having a smaller government, there will be much more in terms of new ideas that ceom from it. Rather than relying on old or outdated concepts, a lot more people are willing to open their mind to it.

2. Increased Governmental Influence
Also, neoliberalism features bigger governmental influence, which ensures that if a president or politician actually wants to get something done, they can use neoliberalism to their advantage and actually advocate for some progressive change. This is in stark contrast to a lot of other ideologies where the only thing promoted is a foundation of consistency and normalcy. To really get progressive change, it demands that someone open their mind, and that is precisely where neoliberalism comes into play.

Disadvantages of Neoliberalism

1. Smaller Government
Classical liberals are supposed to be in favor of smaller government, and that is ironically one of the biggest disadvantages of neoliberalism. Rather than ensuring that government doesn’t become too oppressive, instead, it can actually become bigger and stronger. This can be a bad thing because if you’re worried about unchecked governmental influence, it won’t be able to be stopped under a neoliberalistic banner of sorts.

Overall, while it is a good political philosophy, people should be aware that at times it can simply be way too powerful for its own good.

Nationalism is one of the fastest rising trends in the world, but overall, there has been stiff resistance to this movement, but regardless there is good and bad regarding nationalisation. While it is a powerful political movement, it has to be understood that it is significantly changing the way that world moves politically speaking. Whether you feel that nationalisation is good or bad, the truth is somewhere in the middle. The fact of the matter is, there is no doubt that while it does have some valid problems, there are a lot of good things concerning it, so it’s important to be aware of them.

Nationalisation Advantages

When it comes to nationalisation, there are plenty of advantages. For one, economically speaking, it ensures that a government can stay homogenized and the economy top-to-bottom can be nationalized. This is great because it ensures that everyone in the economy can benefit, and the industries are all united. This is an economic system that really benefits a lot of nations because usually they cannot survive with all of the internal division economically speaking. When you are able to nationalize, you ensure that every part of the country regardless of where it’s from is able to survive. This is very critical in a whole lot of areas because there is no doubt that a lot of problems can pop up. Rather than ensuring that happens to you, you can do whatever you want to make it a balanced system, which is where you have a fair share of international economic income as as well as nationalized income, but together you can ensure that you’re making a good balance of income.

Nationalisation Disadvantages

One of the big problems with nationalisation is that it lacks a serious infrastructure. There is no doubt that when you have an economy based around nationalisation, there may be a serious lack of diversity. This means that international industries could easily poach domestic industry and prices could be very high for consumers, leading to a lower standard of living. There is also no doubt that when you have an economy that deals with brutal nationalisation, there is no ability to diversify anything, and when that happens, you can pigeonhole your economy and give it a lot of problems.

Overall, you have to understand that there is no doubt that being in a place where nationalisation occurs, you have to understand that it can be a major issue, but at the same time, it can be good.

Mustard oil is an extremely popular part of Indian culture and traditions. Not only is it used in the kitchen, it is commonly used as part of daily beauty regimens. There is a long list of benefits of you can reap from the use of mustard oil.

What is Mustard Oil?

Mustard oil is a bright yellow, pungent oil derived from mustard seeds, and is known to be rich in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. It also contains erucic acid, which is dangerous when ingested in large doses. The fatty vegetable oil is a staple in most Indian homes. It is used for cooking, candle lightings, medicinal purposes and beauty enhancement.

Benefits of Mustard Oil

Mustard oil has an impressive amount of loyal supporters. We have compiled a list of the benefits you can expect with regular use.

Natural sunscreen.
The oil is packed with vitamin E, which is a natural protector of the skin. Vitamin E helps with aging, blocking UV rays and preventing skin cancer.

Topical skin treatment.
Mustard oil can be used to treat rashes on the skin and infections. Its anti-inflammatory and anti-fungal properties helps speed up the healing process. It is also very helpful with itchy, dry skin.

Hair treatments.
Mustard oil has been reported to be beneficial to the hair and scalp in a variety of ways. It is said to help prevent hair loss and premature greying. When used as a hot oil treatment regularly, the result will be shiny, luxurious locks.

Removes age spots.
If you are starting to experience age spots, or have dark areas on the skin, a mixture of the oil applied frequently is very effective for skin lightening.

Natural stimulant.
Mustard oil can stimulate many parts of the body, which can be very beneficial. The circulatory, digestive and excretory systems all react when the oil is used. Increased blood circulation and sweat glands will keep you active while regulating your body temperature.

Disadvantages of Mustard Oil Use

As with everything, there are some cons associated with the use of mustard oil.

Contains erucic acid.
This is number one on list of negative attributes of mustard oil. Many people believe it can pose serious health problems such as heart, digestive, respiratory and blood issues.

Minor allergic reactions.
While not typically serious, these reactions can be annoying. They usually consist of redness, itching and dryness.

Increased risk of dropsy.
This results in unusual swelling and fluid retention that caused by severe edema.

Sinus irritation.
Some users will experience inflammation of their sinuses when used. These side effects include: sneezing, coughing, congestion or runny nose.


There are both advantages and disadvantages to using mustard oil. Everyone is different, so it is important to weigh both the pros and cons related to your personal situation. It is recommended to always speak to your physician before adding any supplement used for healing purposes to your daily regimen.

Multivitamins are pills that can be taken daily to add extra vitamins to your diet. People who are looking to become healthier, have health conditions, are pregnant, nursing, or are trying to lose weight often use multivitamins. Pediatricians often recommend them for children, especially if they are picky eaters.

Recently, however, multivitamins have come under attack with arguments being made on both sides. One side claims multivitamins are useful, great for the health, and should be taken daily. The other side claims multivitamins aren’t only useless, or don’t work as they should, but they are also dangerous.

So what are the real advantages and disadvantages of multivitamins? Read on to find out.

Advantages of Multivitamins

The advantages of multivitamins, as described in detail below, include help in prevent deficiencies, increasing energy, improving concentration, helping people in certain circumstances, and the fact that they are incredibly easy to use.

1. Prevents Deficiencies
Obviously, since multivitamins provide a slew of necessary vitamins and minerals, they can help you to prevent deficiencies. They can also assist people who are already deficiency in a particular vitamin or mineral, because it is an ADDITION to your daily diet. For example, people who suffer from low iron (anemia) can focus on ensuring they get enough iron in their diet, and add a multivitamin high in iron to help build their levels up quicker.

2. Boosts Energy & Concentration
Certain vitamins aid the body and brain by providing energy boost and higher concentration abilities. It is the B Vitamins (B6, B12, Folic Acid, Thiamine, and Niacin) which are primarily responsible for both of these. When you have a multivitamin that includes these key nutrients (which most do), you will be able to feel more energetic and focused.

3. Helps People In Certain Circumstances
There are certain circumstances where a strain is placed on your body, and you develop a need for greater amounts of certain vitamins. Examples are when a woman is pregnant or breastfeeding, or when someone is putting their body through extreme pressure due (such as professional athletes). During these circumstances, a daily multivitamin can assist your body in making up for the extra resources it is losing.

4. Multivitamins Are Easy
Taking a daily multivitamin is the absolute easiest way to get extra nutrients. All you have to do is take a pill at the same time every day, and voila! Your done. The only real thing you need to remember is to take it around the same time everyday. This is because it (A) allows your body to adjust to the supplement, (B) greatly decreases your risk of overdosing on certain vitamins, and (C) allows it to become like second nature – no more forgetting your multivitamin.

Disadvantages of Multivitamins

The disadvantages, as explained in detail below, include a risk of overdosing on certain vitamins, not working as they claim to be, and a lack of federal regulations which means they may or may not be safe.

1. Too many Vitamins
Most people don’t realize this, but there really is such a thing as too much of a good thing. Certain vitamins, particularly those that are fat soluble, can be overdosed on. Overdoses can range from mild to severe, and include symptoms such as fatigue, nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, insomnia, sweating, anxiety, depression, heart palpitations, difficulty breathing, kidney failure, and a whole slew of other things.

Vitamins to watch out for are A, D, E, and K, which are all fat soluble. Another one that is often overdosed on is Iron, which is extremely dangerous when consumed in excess. If you are already following a healthy diet that meets all your requirements, you may want to skip the multivitamin – or at least talk to your doctor before beginning daily consumption of one.

2. Some Don’t Work Well
Some multivitamins work better than others. Chewable and liquids, for example, work much better than solid pills. Solid pills have actually been found to pass through the stomach and intestines without being absorbed all that much. They are passed in nearly the same shape or form in which they entered the body, and don’t provide much benefit. If you are going to take a multivitamin, steer away from traditional pill formulations. Opt instead for a variety that is liquid, chewable, or a gel capsule.

3. They May or May Not Be Safe
Multivitamins do not have to be approved before being sold, and are not fully regulated by the FDA. This means it is possible for some vitamins to contain unsafe chemicals or additives. The amounts of the varying vitamins and minerals are also allowed to be off within certain amounts, which means you might not even be getting the amounts you think you are. The best way to be safe is to check for multivitamin products which are organic and come with some sort of safety guarantee.

Multilingualism is when a person speaks more than three languages. These people are often called said to be polyglots, and are admired for their ability to speak so many different languages. If you are thinking about broadening your horizons to learn a second, third, or fourth language, you may be wondering what the advantages and disadvantages of multilingualism are. Read on to find out.

Advantages of Multilingualism

1. Translating
People who are multilingual are able to translate between several different languages, both for themselves or others. This can be incredibly useful, particularly in certain fields such as history or religious studies, where the ability to read or understand an original document can help lend additional information.

2. Ability To Speak To Many More People
The more languages you speak, the more people you are able to easily communicate with. This opens up a world of possibilities, full of more personal stories and interesting people to get to know.

3. Travel To Other Countries Is Easier
If you enjoy traveling abroad, multilingualism can make this a lot easier. An ability to speak to a native population in their own language is not only exciting, but also much more convenient. It may even prove to be safer.

Disadvantages of Multilingualism

1. Confusion
One disadvantage of being multilingual is that it may lend itself to some confusion. Keeping track of so many different languages in your head may cause you to confuse the words of one language with another. This can be further exacerbated if the two languages are similar – such as with Spanish and Italian, for example.

2. Possible Lack of Proficiency
Although it is a rare possibility you can obtain native fluency in multiple languages, it is very hard to accomplish. Multilingualism may cause you to lack high levels of proficiency in some languages, whereas you could have learned a second or third language to native proficiency instead. For many, this isn’t much of a disadvantage. If you simply need to be conversationally adept, it’s fine. If planning to travel extensively, move to another country, or translate documents, however, this can become a very large problem.

3. Time
The largest disadvantage of multilingualism is the amount of time it takes to accomplish. Learning even one new language can take upwards of two years – and that’s only to reach an advanced level of understanding, not a native one. Some studies say reaching native fluency can take as long as seven years if you aren’t fully immersed in the culture, such as when moving to a country where that language is the native tongue.

The Morse code is a method used to transform information into text into a series of lights, clicks, or on-off tones. The receiver does not have any necessary equipment to decode the code, but must have the skill and experience to decipher the code. This code gets its name after the telegraph inventor, Samuel F. B. Morse.

The International Morse Code incorporates ISO basic Latin alphabet with some extra Latin letters. It also includes Arabic numerals with a small set of dashes and dots. The composition of the code is to allow for the incorporation of other languages apart from English that uses more than the 26 Roman letters.

Advantages of Morse Code

In the modern age, the Morse code is still as relevant as it was in the days of old. Here are the advantages of Morse code.

1. Cheap
Use of the Morse code is a cheaper way to send information over long distances. For over 150 years since information transmits easily over longer distance via radio waves in an easy and cheap way.

2. Wireless
The lack of wires has made the application of Morse code diverse since it is silently sent and received at any desirable speed. Its wireless nature makes Morse code receivable though any visible means.

Disadvantages of Morse Code

During the war, the Morse code got widely applied in the World Wars to ensure that neither side could decipher their secrets. Below are some of the other disadvantages of Morse Code.

1. Learning the Morse Code
The Morse code is not an easy concept to understand and it is largely a reserve of a few radio programmers. The concept is not easy to learn either and the machines are in scarcity in the modern age. It is also tough to apply in the modern era that is

2. Time Consuming
Sending and decoding of the Morse code is time consuming and it is the reason many people put it off. When the transmission of information is at high speeds, the

3. Interruption
The Morse code is easy to intercept and it is no longer a reliable option compared to the recent technological inventions. Better technologies are in a position to provide better channels of passing information.

Morse code application spans through the aviation industry, amateur radio and a host of other uses in the past. In assistive technology, Morse code is also helping people with disabilities like deafness, motion disability, to communicate.