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Negatives and Positives

Injections are administered in different ways. The most common methods are intravenous, subcutaneous and intramuscular. Intravenous injections are administered directly into the veins, usually at the forearms or at the wrists. Subcutaneous injections are administered into the skin, just under the topmost layer into the fat. Intramuscular injections are administered into the muscles, usually at the deltoid, gluteus or thigh. All these three methods of administering injections have their share of advantages and disadvantages. Here are the intramuscular injections advantages and disadvantages.

List of Advantages of Intramuscular Injections

1. Simple and Accessible
The method is simple and very accessible. When injections cannot be administered by doctors or no one trained is around, it is difficult to administer intravenous or even the subcutaneous injections. Intramuscular injections are much easier to administer. Most people can easily access their thigh muscles. One can even access the deltoid or the gluteus muscle.

2. Unaided Administering
There are medical devices available that make administering intramuscular injections easier but one doesn’t have to use them. With some intravenous injections and subcutaneous injections, you would depend on some medical devices. You don’t need to find a vein or the exact depth of the fat inside the skin.

3. Imperative for Many
Intramuscular injections are necessary to administer some vaccines and many drugs including immunoglobulins. You cannot administer these as subcutaneous or intravenous injections. Intramuscular injections can supply a larger volume of the drug or fluid. The intake is much more since muscles have a larger capacity than the veins. Since the medicine is not directly getting into the bloodstream, there is a sustained release which can have a desired effect in certain cases. Not everyone or every condition benefits from an instant release of a medicine into the bloodstream.

List of Disadvantages of Intramuscular Injections

1. Can be Ineffective
Intramuscular injections can be futile if the exact site where it is administered is not conducive to the ready absorption of the drug. Absorption is anyway poor with intramuscular injections, especially when you compare with intravenous injections, so wrong choice of site can easily lead to wastage.

2. Side Effects
Intramuscular injections have quite a few side effects. General discomfort is quite common. One may also experience severe pain where injected, numbness and tingling are common too, swelling and redness would certainly occur if the administration was not gentle, there can be drainage at the site, bleeding is possible and there can be allergies depending on the drug as well as the person’s vulnerability to various allergens.

Internet censorship is a contentious issue. Here are the advantages and disadvantages of internet censorship.

List of Advantages of Internet Censorship

1. Good for Underage Kids
The biggest advantage of internet censorship is protecting the rights of minors. Kids are not considered matured enough to choose what they see or what kind of content they access. This is why television shows, movies and games are certified to find the appropriate audience. Kids get exposed to porn, violent videos and all kinds of unnerving content which are not only unpleasant but they can prove to be very discomforting and unsettling for a child’s psyche.

2. Protecting the Rights of Women and Children
Internet censorship aimed at protecting rights of women, children and animals has many advantages. Naming and shaming women, videos of kids being bullied, cruelty against animals and myriad types of real but gruesome contents are available and circulated online which are clearly unacceptable. There are also dedicated attempts to malign the reputations of people, most notably trying to embarrass women by sharing leaked photos and videos.

3. Enhanced Cyber Security
Internet censorship will help cyber security of a country. Law enforcement agencies will be able to keep an unfailing focus on everything that is happening and will be able to prevent crimes or stop them at various phases of development. Websites are banned, digital interfaces are taken down and criminal proceedings are executed against organizations misusing the internet but there are still fraud transactions, identity thefts and the huge deep dark web. Internet censorship may make the virtual world a safer place.

4. Insulating Radical Notions
From Arab Spring to the growth of ISIS, the internet has been used for many positive and negative objectives. Arab Spring may have appeared to be empowering but it lead a country to an unsparing mess. ISIS is growing even today and influencing people around the world. Radical notions cannot be thwarted with internet censorship but one can at least insulate them and prevent them from affecting or inspiring people around the world.

List of Disadvantages of Internet Censorship

1. Not Pragmatic
The biggest problem with internet censorship is that it is perhaps impossible to do. Does anyone really know how to censor the internet in its totality? Banning a website is doable but it may crop up using another proxy server or domain name. You cannot block the whole galactic network unless you simply taken down the service providers.

2. Violates Rights
Internet censorship can be influenced. Truth may be kept away from the public. It can lead to propagandas serving special interests. In any case the government cannot decide or whoever the authority is as to what people want to read, watch or access, as long as it is not illegal.

3. Bad for Economy
Internet censorship may be bad for the economy. The government will have to spend much more. Businesses will have to bear the brunt of the fallout.

Intercropping is quite common around the world and it is not just farmers but also hobbyists and gardeners who practice intercropping. There are advantages and disadvantages of intercropping. You should consider the rewards and challenges before you decide either way.

List of Advantages of Intercropping

1. Greater Income, Greater Yield
Intercropping offers greater financial returns for a farmer. Even if you are growing some produce for your own family or just as part of a hobby, you will have multiple types of produce, which is always a nice outcome. Intercropping will help farmers use the same land as available and yield more as well as diverse produce. This generates more income for the farmer without really taking up any major expenditure. The infrastructure available or the land used remains the same.

2. Insurance against Crop Damage
Intercropping can be the insurance that farmers need, especially when the region is vulnerable to weather extremes. Drought, torrential rain, hurricanes or cyclones and various other weather elements can affect the yield of a given year or season. Having diverse yields allows the farmer to have some income even if the primary crop gets damaged or doesn’t yield as much as expected.

3. Optimum Use of Soil
Intercropping makes the most of the available soil. When anything is grown on a farmland, the crop tends to absorb as much water and nutrients as it needs. There could be more nutrients in the soil under the crops and around. This soil and more specifically the nutrients can be used, by the different varieties of crops. Intercropping also averts soil runoff and can prevent the growth of weeds.

4. Good for Primary Crops
Intercropping is good for the primary crops. The secondary crops can provide shelter and even protect the primary crops. Intercropping also allows you to grow cash crops or any crop that will actually supplement the primary crop in some way.

List of Disadvantages of Intercropping

1. Poor Yields
Intercropping can lead to poorer yields. The crops may not be compatible. The crops may actually compete for the same nourishment and of course water, which may lead to an unmanageable conflict. It is possible that both crops don’t yield enough produce.

2. Costly & Complicated
Intercropping obviously costs more money upfront. There is a need for more fertilizers and water. Harvesting is also more complicated. If something goes horribly wrong with either crop then the other crop may also get damaged.

Instrumentation amplifier is a kind of differential amplifier. It is used primarily for testing instruments and to measure the calibration as well as output of various equipments. Installed or connected with input buffer amplifiers, instrumentation amplifier is widely used in the music industry, by broadcasters and producers around the world.

List of Advantages of Instrumentation Amplifier

1. Accurate Testing and Measurement
Instrumentation amplifier doesn’t require input impedance matching. This makes the amplifier ideal for testing and measuring various equipments. Instrumentation amplifier has a low DC offset. It doesn’t generate any noticeable noise and the drift is considerably low. The open loop gain is very high, the common mode rejection ratio is also very high and the two attributes along with considerable input impedances make them very accurate.

2. Stable and Easy to Use
Instrumentation amplifier is very stable and hence ideal for long term use. It is also perfect for short term use. Instrumentation amplifier has a controlled circuit but it can be easily varied or adjusted by working on the R (gain) value. There is no need to change the circuit or its structure. Since the R (gain) is almost entirely dependent on the resistors used externally, the gain value can be gauged very accurately and can be tweaked by working on the resistors. Choosing or changing the resistor values is more critical here. There is very little erring variance in the output because the common code signal is rejected and any output impedance is essentially the output impedance you would get with a differential amplifier.

3. Reliability of the Setup and Results
Instrumentation amplifier works with the input and hence doesn’t really depend much on the various factors that influence the output at the latter stages. You can understand more about an instrument’s output ability only when you know the input very well. The outputs will anyway depend on many associated and disassociated factors.

4. Highly Scalable
Using instrumentation amplifier allows you to amplify the sound at the input level so even a relatively tiny input can be amplified to a great extent. With amplifications of outputs, there is still a need for substantial input, only then can you amplify to a desired extent.

List of Disadvantages of Instrumentation Amplifier

1. Long Range Transmission Issues
The biggest and perhaps the only concern with instrumentation amplifier is the superimposing of the original wave when the sound or noise gets transmitted over a long range. The system will depend on special cables that can cancel this noise or superimposition.

Most countries in the world have institutionalized inflation targeting. The central bank is primarily responsible to keep an unfailing focus on inflation. The executive or the elected government has a select committee in most countries keeping a daily tab on fluctuations inflation rates. The legislative, parliamentarians or senators also have policies in the pipeline or as backups to counter uncontrolled inflation. The practice has been in place for almost fifty years now where countries want to keep a check on inflation. If unchecked, inflation can wreak havoc on the economy and the future of the country.

Two measures are used in inflation targeting. One is consumer price index or CPI and the other is wholesale price index or WPI. Both indices are tracked and studied every day. Over the years, the major stock exchanges of the worlds, investors, traders and anyone who runs a business along with every aware citizen have been watchful of their local, regional and national inflation rates. Every major central bank in the world announces publicly the rate which they are trying to cap the inflation for a given period of time. Political parties and elected representatives also take public stands on whether the rate is achievable or if it is impractical. Inflation targeting has its benefits and there are challenges as a result. Here are the inflation targeting advantages and disadvantages.

List of Advantages of Inflation Targeting

1. Balancing Predictability and Expectations
Inflation targeting instills predictability. If one was to take a broader view of the world, then situations will appear to be relatively predictable. The moment one delves into the natural upheavals in microenvironments, then everything can turn topsy-turvy in no time. People lose jobs every day, businesses open and many shut every week. Companies make profits and organizations go bankrupt every month. With no check on inflation, people and organizations would not know what to expect. Employees will demand higher wages. Companies will not know what kind of costs they will have to bear. The agricultural sector will be in losses. The markets will be on an uncertain ride. The whole economy may look clueless and unorganized. With inflation targeting, some sense of normalcy, calm and predictability can be attained.

2. Preventing Bubbles and Fuelling Sustainable Growth
Inflation targeting can help avert disasters. One sector that plays a dominant role in the economy changing its policies can have an impact on the whole nation. The principal foundation of supply and demand works in all industries. If any sector is allowed a complete free hand at reviewing their production, selling prices and where they sell, then economic booms and busts will become a more frequent reality. Economies have periods of growth and there are lulls. But economies need to be monitored and controlled as much as possible to avoid unsubstantiated growth and then bursts of bubbles. Inflation is not a definitive indication of growth. Inflation if unchecked will lead to unsustainable growth and an inevitable recession.

3. Preventing Economic Collapse
Without inflation targeting, costs can skyrocket. What is affordable today may not be so tomorrow. Essentials may become unaffordable. Rising costs will hamper every life in the nation. Families would struggle to keep up with the rising costs and eventually there will be a complete economic chaos.

List of Disadvantages of Inflation Targeting

1. Unrealistic in Nature
Inflation targeting can become unrealistic. The very nature of an economy, especially the large ones, is that it takes a life of its own. The economy will react and be influenced by thousands of factors and it is not possible to always counter so many influencing elements. Hence, in an attempt to target a certain inflation rate or to keep it within a certain limit, central banks and governments take measures that prove to be wrong. Many a time in the past and in developed nations, governments and the central banks have not only failed to contain inflation but their attempts have led to more problems.

2. Against Development
Inflation targeting is panned by many as against development. Every time there has been a major developmental phase in any part of the world, inflation has followed. It is not entirely possible to keep the inflation in check at all times. Even today, there are places in every country where inflation targeting simply doesn’t work. It must be accepted that there are macroeconomic scenarios and microeconomic realties. Not always can the central banks micromanage. In fact, it is almost impossible to micromanage when economies are worth billions and in some cases trillions of dollars.

3. Side Effects
Inflation targeting can be hazardous for a country in the long term. It can render various industries to become uncompetitive. The governments may take up too much of the onus or the financial burden of keeping inflation under check. This can lead to higher fiscal deficits, poor welfare policies or stimulus packages and eventually the economy may cease to remain as free flowing as is needed.

There are many types of reasoning of which two are very common and popular. They are inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. The latter was made universally popular by author Arthur Conan Doyle with his iconic detective Sherlock Holmes who used deductive reasoning to solve crimes or at least to get further in his investigation. Inductive reasoning is the opposite in many ways.

Deductive reasoning allows you to have a cluster of observations and then you deduce the various scenarios or break them down to get to a specific observation whereby you get led to a conclusion studying the various possibilities. Inductive reasoning allows you to take an observation and then go forward to apply that to various similar circumstances and at times different scenarios.

List of Advantages of Inductive Reasoning

1. Gamut of Probabilities
The biggest advantage of inductive reasoning is that you get to work with probabilities. Not all probabilities will be true or even possible but you do get various options. When you have to gauge an idea or develop a perception with very little material at hand, which could be observations or experience, then you need a starting point. Inductive reasoning gets you to that starting point. Inductive reasoning is used consciously and naturally by people in all walks of life. From friends to peers, we tend to use inductive reasoning to judge people. From professional challenges to chores at home, we resort to inductive reasoning to develop our perceptions and it also influences how we approach these tasks.

2. Fuels further Exploration
Inductive reasoning begins with a specific observation or inference. It fuels more exploration to test if the judgment or probable inference is right or wrong. In the process, anyone who uses inductive reasoning will explore the given context, the realm and try or test different scenarios. This kind of exploration is not only good for the purpose of investigation or studying probabilities but it also helps the person indulging in inductive reasoning to understand how accurate or inaccurate the initial assessments and inferences have been.

List of Disadvantages of Inductive Reasoning

1. Limited in Scope and Inaccurate Inferences
Inductive reasoning is very limited. It begins with a single observation or an inference drawn from very specific and alike situations. This cannot possibly lead anyone to a fair judgment or accurate inference in a diverse world. Deductive reasoning amasses observations and then gets specific and even then it goes wrong at times. Inductive reasoning begins with something specific and then tries to generalize, which will go wrong more often than frequent.

Have you ever noticed that the same politicians are on the ballot year after year? If congress gets such low approval ratings, why do the overwhelming majority of sitting representatives keep getting reelected The answer often comes down to the advantages of incumbency, which are numerous, however there are also many disadvantages that come from being a know entity.

Advantages of Incumbency

1. Well known
Holding an elected office, whether it’s a Senator or local PTA President, bestows upon the owner a certain amount of prominence among their constituents. When it comes time to vote, name recognition is one of the primary benefits of incumbency, especially in more obscure races. This association is often enough to overcome challenges from more obscure rivals.

2. Institutional Support
By running from within the system, officials can use many of the advantages that come with their office. Interest groups and other supporters are much more likely to get behind someone with a proven track record of responding to their needs than an unknown challenger. Also, there are many tools and resources available to office holders through the system of support behind the organization, like voter databases as well as contact information, that can be used to their advantage.

3. Fund Raising
Connections with powerful constituencies and the power to influence decisions on their behalf often allows incumbents to raise far more money than those who are working from outside the system. Historical precedent and data confirms that elected officials are often able to out raise and spend their opponents in races that require fund raising.

Disadvantages of Incumbency

1. Proven Track Record
Many upstarts find their opening to elected office by running against either the personal or official track record of their opponent. While this goes both ways, any controversial decision an office holder makes is potential ammunition in the hands of their challenger.

2. Voter Fatigue
When things aren’t going well, theres a natural inclination to blame those at the top, whether they deserve it or not. Incumbent office holders often face electorates that are either angry about the state of things beyond the official’s control or apathetic about their leadership.

3. Enemies
When you are responsible for making decisions, the outcome may not be palatable to some of the stakeholders. Come election time, there are likely to remember. When these constituencies are wealthy corporations or powerful individuals, it can make it that much harder to hold onto office when they are actively working against you.

When you are dealing with conditions and disorders that are negatively impacting your health, it is only normal that you would look for alternative treatment options. People that are trying to quit smoking or Stop overeating, might benefit from a hypnotherapy treatment. Hypnotherapy is becoming more popular and is a more trusted option. It involves the use of hypnosis to allow for the desired result. Hypnosis is designed to allow you to relax deeply. Before you consider trying hypnotherapy, it is a good idea for you to become more aware of the advantage s and disadvantages. Here are the advantage and disadvantages of using hypnotherapy:

Advantages of Hypnotherapy

1. Important Issues Resolved
One of the reasons why hypnotherapy is becoming so trusted is because this treatment option really works. This means that if you are dealing with a serious problem, it is possible to sort it out with the use of hypnotherapy. If you are tired of dealing with these issues on your own, it is time that you had the help that you need.

2. Person Centered
Another great benefit to this type of treatment is that it can be specifically designed to your needs. This means that each hypnotherapy session is designed for just you and allows for a very individualized approach. The reason that hypnotherapy can be so effective is because it is so person centered. If you have tried other treatments and not seen results, you should give hypnotherapy a try due to the fact that it is so person centered.

Disadvantages of Hypnotherapy

1. Cost
One of the main downsides to using hypnotherapy is the cost. This means that if the price of treatment is something that is a major concern, it might not be best to choose hypnotherapy. This type of treatment is not cheap and it does require one on one sessions with a trained hypnotists. This means that if you are looking for the most affordable treatment, this might not be ideal for you.

2. Varied Results
It is also important to note when you are considering hypnotherapy that it is not always the answer. This means that hypnotherapy will not always work for you in the way that you desire. Some people are more apt to have success with hypnotherapy than others. However, it is often worth a try when you are looking for a solution to a real problem. This cab be exactly what you have been looking for.

Hydrotherapy is the use of heated water for the treatment of various conditions in the human body. Physiotherapists have devised a way to treat conditions such as arthritis, and other rheumatic related conditions. Very different from swimming, hydrotherapy involves exercises specially formulated to provide relief to medical conditions.

A physiotherapist conducts these special exercises in a pool at 33-360, which is a few degrees warmer than your typical pool used for swimming. Hydrotherapy exercises are unique to each patient and are adjustable to help each patient’s range of movement and strength depending on the symptoms they pose. There are two types of hydrotherapy, immersion, and non-immersion.

List of Advantages of Hydrotherapy

1. Relieves pain and reduces muscular tension
When in the hydrotherapy pool, you feel a kind of weightlessness that serves to relieve tension and pain in your limbs. The water also supports the aching limbs and ease movement. The practice of hydrotherapy stimulates the release of endorphins, which act as the natural pain reliever.

2. Rehabilitation of injured muscles
Warm water raises your body temperature while increasing the blood flow in your body. Hydrotherapy incorporates a heated pool, which will ensure that there is improved blood flow helping in the repair process of your injured tissues as well as rehabilitating damaged joints and muscles.

3. Stress relief
Studies show that the use of hydrotherapy treatment while on a de-stress holiday, it works wonders. Hydrotherapy reduces blood pressure caused by stress. More and more people are taking up hydrotherapy as it can slow down the reaction of the body to anxiety by releasing endorphins, which fight stress and pain naturally.

List of Disadvantages of Hydrotherapy

1. Overheating
This is the most common type of side effects of hydrotherapy. It occurs when you spend too much time in the hydrotherapy pool.

2. Causes Cardiac Instability
Prolonged hydrotherapy treatments can cause uncontrolled hypertension and heart failure.

3. Spread of Waterborne diseases
Since you will be in the water for hydrotherapy treatment, you are at a risk of contracting UTIs, tinea pedis and or plantar warts.

4. Severe Epilepsy
While undertaking hydrotherapy treatment exercises some patients easily develop severe epilepsy, which increases the risk of drowning.

5. Bowel and bladder inconsistency
This is common with non-immersion exercises. These exercises are the leading cause of inconsistent bowel and bladder movements.

While hydrotherapy has its good and bad sides to it, it is wise to consult a physician. Hydrotherapy is not for patients with respiratory problems. Exercise proper care when carrying out hydrotherapy treatment since it can cause disorientation and confusion.

Humanity has been harnessing the power of flowing water for centuries. Today, hydroelectric power is responsible for producing a large percentage or even majority of the electricity supply for the whole state. There are many advantages to hydroelectric power that have helped this technology persist and develop, however the practice is also controversial due to some important disadvantages.

Advantages of Hydroelectric Energy

1. No Carbon Emissions
Hydroelectic power features prominently in the clean energy plans of many countries, states and localities because it generates a large amount of electricity without the releasing any carbon into the atmosphere. Many of these projects are already in use so it does not require any new emissions from construction or industrial production to utilize them.

2. Renewable
Many forms of energy such as coal or uranium are finite natural resources, meaning there is only so much to be dug up and used before society must switch to an alternate fuel source. Due to the natural water cycle, hydraulic power is constantly replenishing it’s supplies and should never run dry. The amount of power produced can fluctuate as a result of draught and lower water levels however this is usually seasonal or corrected by natural changes.

3. Large Source of Electricity
Unlike other sources of renewable energy, hydroelectric power can produce a large amount of electricity from a single site that can then be transmitted across large distances, making it especially compatible with the existing electricity grid. Additionally, because the water is always flowing, pending some seasonal deviations, hydroelectric power does not suffer from the same intermittency limitations as solar or wind.

Disadvantages of Hydroelectric Energy

1. Destructive
Opposition to hydroelectric projects such as Hetch Hetchy helped spawn the early conservation movement in the United States. Today, many environmentalists disagree over whether to support the continued use of hydroelectric power because it is a clean, renewable source of electricity, or try and remove the dams because they are incredibly destructive to the surrounding landscape.

2. Costly
Hydroelectric projects are among the most costly large infrastructure to build. Marvels of modern engineering like the Hoover or Three Gorges Dam took billions of dollars and millions of man hours to construct.

3. Disrupt Fisheries
Species of fish such as Salmon require unobstructed rivers so they can swim up them to reach traditional spawning grounds. Additionally, fish that spend their whole lives in a river can be severely effected by the introduction of a dam and reservoir to an ecosystem. This can devastate fisheries as well as the communities that rely on them.