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Negatives and Positives

Fractional distillation is the process of separating a mixture into its different components. It’s similar to simple distillation in that it uses heat (evaporation) and cooling (condensation) to separate substances; the difference is that simple distillation does this process once, while fractional distillation repeats the process several times within the same system. Simple distillation is ideal for a mixture whose components have vastly different boiling points, while fractional distillation is ideal for a mixture whose components have very close boiling points (less than 40 degrees Celsius).

Fractional distillation is advantageous since it’s used in a wide range of industrial process. However, it also brings about several disadvantages. Read on to know about these benefits and drawbacks.

List of Advantages of Fractional Distillation

1. It’s easy to implement.
One of the biggest benefits of fractional distillation is that it’s easy to use. As long as you set up a fully functional and well-designed system, you can leave it as is to do its job. You only need to check the system on a regular basis to ensure it’s functioning properly, find out if it needs repairs, and fix whatever needs fixing. Modern fractional distillation setups are automated using microprocessors, which make the process even easier.

2. It’s highly effective and efficient.
Fractional distillation has been proven by countless experiments and actual processes to be effective. In fact, it’s widely used in many industrial settings to create the products that modern society needs. Fractional distillation is also highly efficient, especially for systems that use stacked distillation columns, which produce more output at lower costs.

3. It helps produce much-needed fuel.
Fractional distillation is used to refine crude oil and produce diesel, kerosene, gasoline, naphtha (used in creating chemicals), and bitumen (used for roofs and roads). With this in mind, it’s easy to conclude that fractional distillation has greatly contributed to the advancement and modernization of human life.

List of Disadvantages of Fractional Distillation

1. It can be expensive.
On an industrial level, fractional distillation is expensive because it requires large structures, heavy-duty materials, and specialized machinery. It also requires staff to be fully trained in the operation of systems to ensure they know how to use the distillation equipment and won’t make mistakes. So, before an oil refinery or industrial plant can be put up, the owners must first raise a substantial amount of money.

2. It comes with operational hazards.
Just like any process that uses heat, fractional distillation presents a wide range of risks for the people who are involved in it. One of the biggest hazards is explosion, which can take place if the system is not equipped with the appropriate precautions.

3. It can contribute to environmental pollution.
Fractional distillation in itself is not harmful to the environment; its ecological damage depends on the types of mixtures that are distilled. Refining crude oil, for example, can lead to the release of large amounts of harmful chemicals into the atmosphere. It can also contribute to the pollution of rivers, streams, and other bodies of water, which can happen when refineries improperly dump waste water.

Fractional distillation has several advantages and disadvantages, and governments and industrial companies must learn how to find a balance between these pros and cons.

Forensic accounting is a branch of accounting that focuses on investigating business and financial records to determine if fraud, money laundering, or other crime has occurred. “Forensic” means “belonging to or suitable to use in a court of law”, which is why forensic accountants strive to produce findings that can be used in court. These professionals are also called on to give evidence during trials.

Forensic accounting offers several benefits at first glance but, if you look closer, you’ll see that it also has its drawbacks. Read on to learn more about the advantages and disadvantages of this practice area.

List of Advantages of Forensic Accounting

1. It helps solve financial crimes.
As mentioned above, forensic accounting can greatly help in solving financial crimes. These can involve bribery within government offices as well as fraud and money laundering within business organizations. Forensic accounting not only helps with gathering evidence for crimes but can also be used in detecting and identifying crimes.

2. It helps monitor professionals.
Forensic accounting can be used to assess the work of professionals, including accountants themselves. The findings from this assessment, in turn, can be used to file professional negligence claims against those who have been proven to have made critical errors (whether intentionally or not).

3. It helps businesses with their finances.
Businesses can use forensic accounting to detect anomalies among their staff and with third parties they’re working with. For instance, a company can ask a forensic accountant to check an employee’s purchasing records to see if all of his purchases were for business use or if he diverted some for his personal use.

List of Disadvantages of Forensic Accounting

1. It takes a lot of time.
Forensic accounting is never easy. It requires accountants to go through every piece of document to ensure that their investigation is complete and that they’ll uncover every evidence that will solve the case. This can take many days and can even stretch to many weeks or months, depending on the magnitude of the case, the size of the organization involved, and the number of documents to review.

2. It can be expensive.
Because of the lengthy period of time needed, forensic accounting can turn out to be expensive. This isn’t a problem for huge corporations that have more than enough funds, but it can be an issue for smaller businesses that have limited budgets.

3. It can be distracting.
Forensic accounting can cause a distraction among employees, particularly when outside accountants are brought in. The process can disrupt the staff’s normal routine and cause their productivity and efficiency to suffer.

4. It can affect employee morale.
Forensic accounting can cause employees to feel like their integrity is doubted, which can lead to lower staff morale. It’s the responsibility of managers and business owners to make their people understand that forensic accounting is done not as a sign of distrust but as a way to improve business efficiency.

These are some of the advantages and disadvantages of forensic accounting. Weigh these first to know whether you’d get forensic accounting services or not.

There is no question that there is a great deal of controversy on the subject of food irradiation advantages and disadvantages. With food irradiation, the goal is to establish safe food supplies. In doing so, people will be able to maintain confidence in the foods that they have eaten. However, there are a number of advantages and disadvantages to consider.

Food irradiation also suffers from something of an image crisis. Although people are in fact exposed to radiation all of the time, any concept that has the word “radiation” can serve to make them nervous. However, when it comes to the subject of food irradiation advantages and disadvantages, you are going to find the subject to be far more complex than mere perception.

List of Advantages of Food Irradiation

1. Immune Deficiency Benefits
Those who suffer from a disease that depresses the immune system, which can occur through meds or the disease itself, can become ill from the most general food contaminants. With food irradiation, you have something that will remove those contaminants.

2. It Kills Dangerous Organisms
The best food handling measures in the world aren’t a guarantee that all of the dangerous organisms will be avoided and/or removed. Food irradiation obliterates ninety percent of these organisms.

3. A Proactive Measure Against Insects
As most of us know, moths and similar insects love grains. Storing them in your home certainly isn’t going to deter them. Food irradiation makes the products less appealing to the insects. This in turn makes it less likely that the insects will leave eggs in the grains, which can cause a variety of health problems.

List of Disadvantages of Food Irradiation

1. No Promises
One of the problems with food irradiation is that there is no definitive way of killing all of the organisms that can come into contact with our foods. Some organisms are in fact resistant to the mild radiation that is utilized.

2. Animals
Studies going back several decades come to the same conclusion over and over again. Irradiated foods can cause health problems with a variety of animals. Rare cancers, chromosome abnormalities, and even premature deaths can occur.

3. Colors and Textures
Both vitamins and minerals are at risk through irradiation. Worse yet, the textures and flavors can also be altered through this process. For many people, these changes are unpleasant. The smell of beef after irradiation is one example.

It doesn’t matter how much money you make, its always important to have a budget. Without determining the proper amount to save and spend each month, it can be easy to fall into credit card debt or incur other adverse financial penalties. For those who fluctuate in monthly expenditures, flexible budgeting can be a great solution but there are also some drawback to this practice.

Advantages of Flexible Budgeting

1. Seasonal Expenses
Winter coats cost more than swimsuits and you don’t take beach vacations in the fall. These are examples of seasonal expenses that do not recur throughout the year. Flexible budgeting can be used to adjust for these large purchases when they occur without requiring any adjustments in following months.

2. Irregular Earnings
Holiday bonuses often recognize a year of work but they also come at a convenient time. Many families have increased expenses at this time of year which is also why many employers choose to give out bonuses when they do. Flexible budgets incorporate these irregular payouts in a way that allows them to be used when the funds are most needed.

3. Less Stress, More Fun
Budgets are helpful but they can also become oppressive if an individual consistently cannot stay within the limits or passes on opportunities in order to save money. By designing a budget with flexibility in mind, you won’t find yourself stressed out at the end of every month or telling your friends you can’t join them all the time. Just be sure not to use it an excuse to lose the boundaries entirely.

Disadvantages of Flexible Budgeting

1. Confusing
Budgets are simple because they provide one figure within which someone must remain. Flexible budgets require more planning in order to track expenses and adjust for any differences between periods. A range that changes over time can make the budgeting processing overly confusing for some users and therefore reduce the odds that they will successfully follow it.

2. Enables Cheating
The rules of a traditional budget are straightforward: don’t spend more than the limit. Flexible budgets complicate things by include more rules that can easily be bent or broken by someone who is struggling to stay within the boundaries.

3. Less Discipline
The whole point of a flexible budget is to make it easier to adhere to, however, by not following the same rigid program every month, such systems are unlikely to foster the same discipline or long term habits as more traditional alternatives.

According to great authors, such as Stephen King, first person narration is usually the first method of writing for new authors and is still even used by many established authors. As you can see, this style comes with certain strengths, such as simplicity, accessibility and directness. However, it also comes with its own set of drawbacks that should be taken into consideration. Here are the advantages and disadvantages of first person narration:

List of Advantages of First Person Narration

1. It is accessible.
It has been claimed by many authors that this style of writing is accessible as they can use their voice for narration, which means that they will have an immediate connection to their creations. As for the narrators, they will have a better understanding of the characters who might otherwise they have to imagine, giving them a strong starting point for the story. Generally, accessibility comes automatically with this style.

2. It will put readers inside the narrator’s mind.
Immediately, narration places readers inside the narrator’s head, allowing for an intimate portrayal of emotions and other thoughts—the narrator will be able to communicate effectively how every moment feels and deliver sight, smell, sound, touch and taste all through his prism. His love, hopes, fears and despair will be brought to the readers directly with maximum impact. He can also put across the motivations of the main character, and his reactions to situations will be effectively imparted, creating a strong sense of empathy in the readers.

3. It is direct.
The directness in first person narration will make the author’s work so easy that he would often repeat it. For example, “Interview with the Vampire” has used character Louis as first person narrator, which made the novel ran itself off speedily that the author duplicated such a feat with “The Vampire Lestat”, which sees the vampire Lestat as the first-person protagonist this time.

4. It provides clear identity to the text.
By writing in first person, an author will be able to deliver an entire story in his narrator’s voice, which can give a clear identity to the text and submerge readers further into a world he is creating. He can also hide expositions within a stream of consciousness and turn them into musings and thoughts.

5. It makes it easier for the narrator to say whatever he wants.
One great advantage of first person narration is that a narrator can say whatever he wants, which is impossible with third-person narration, and he can be completely excused for this because it can be part of his character. Also, the narrator would not even have to be the writer’s protagonist, though he would be the protagonist in his story. Taking for example a narration of the life of Christ—Jesus would be the protagonist and Satan the antagonist, while Judas would be the lead character and narrator in his own story arc.

List of Disadvantages of First Person Narration

1. It is limited to a single story thread.
While King agrees that first person narration is used by many new and established writers, he prefers third-person narration as this allows him to work on a large canvas, which is limited in first person narration. It would be difficult for an author who uses first person to move through a number of sub-plots and various narrative threads. Its disadvantage of being limited to a single story thread will also make descriptions of the characters and the narrator problematic if the story is stuck with only a single pair of eyes.

2. It would risk making the narrative self-indulgent in the narrator’s emotions.
This style of writing would risk narrative becoming self-indulgent in the emotions of the narrator, as it will see constant self-referencing and extreme emotional responses, which can drown out the story making it become too much. Unlike in passive narration, the narrator would be in the scene, but would not be doing too much, just watching the other characters with no feelings or reactions.

3. It tends to be bias.
Since this type of writing is told from the perspective of only a single narrator, the story would naturally become biased by the filter of the character who tells the story, creating the literary problem that is known as “unreliable narrator”, which entails that the storyteller is either purposefully distorting the truth or having their own understanding of the characters and events.

4. It narrows the experience.
First person narration would limit reader experience, as the readers would only experience the narrator’s side of the story. It also restricts the writer, as he can only reveal what the narrator would see and think, considering that this character should always be on stage or observing it. As previously implied, this style would make it difficult to add a subplot to a story, as readers cannot entirely see into the minds of other characters. Moreover, the sub-plots would need to involve the narrator or switch narrators to another first-person perspective, which is not truly feasible.

5. It would be difficult to describe the narrator.
Describing a narrator would be almost impossible within a first person narration, unless there would be a scene where he needs to describe the way how they look, which is not advised in writing, as it is referred to as a terrible cliché and even completely unnecessary. Considering that the narrator tends to have less understanding of the story’s big picture, the writer needs to be careful of not giving him too much awareness or knowledge, while sufficiently hinting that readers will be able to surmise the overall plot at a certain point in time, which is difficult to pull off.

6. It would make it difficult for the narrator to capture the character.
To be successful, this style of writing should embody the way the narrator speaks, and some dialects would make the piece difficult to read. This means that the writer should ensure the narrator capture the character and carefully plan how he talks to the reader, which can be difficult.

So, there you have it! Based on the advantages and disadvantages listed above, would you go for first person narration when writing a story, or not?

It’s highly likely fermented foods are already in your diet, especially if you enjoy aged cheese, yogurt and wine – just to name a few. The practice of fermentation traces back to the old days and it’s essentially a way to preserve food. As such, fermented foods don’t lose nutrients and they don’t spoil all too easy. Foods of this nature usually have strong, pungent flavors. While fermented foods do offer certain health benefits, they do have some downsides.

List of Advantages of Fermented Foods

1. It helps restore proper bacteria balance in the intestines.
Probiotics are mostly part of a group of bacteria that produces lactic acid and are found in fermented milk, yogurt and other foods that have undergone the fermentation process. According to the June 2006 issue of the Journal of Applied Microbiology, the health of intestinal tracts can be improved through the consumption of food that has lactic acid bacteria. Not only that, consuming such foods can also improve the bioavailability of nutrients, minimize the symptoms of lactose intolerance and reduce the prevalence of allergy in those who are susceptible.

2. It improves heart health.
The consumption of dairy is associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. However, there are certain milk products that have undergone fermentation considered good for the heart. There is evidence to prove that fermented milk products can mildly decrease really high blood pressure (also known as hypertension), according to the February 2006 issue of Current Opinion in Lipidology.

3. It improves the immune system.
Eating foods that have been fermented can make the intestine stronger and thus less at risk for intestinal illnesses. The consumption of fermented foods can also boost the immune system as seen with kefir, an acidic beverage made by fermenting milk with grains. Kefir is easily digested but it also colonizes the intestines with microorganisms that help maintain a healthy immune response. Kefir has been used to treat tuberculosis and cancer, according to the United Nations University.

List of Disadvantages of Fermented Foods

1. It is linked with the development of gastric cancer.
A study was published in Cancer Science in January 2011 showing a connection between the consumption of fermented foods and the risk of developing gastric cancer. The study was a meta-analysis of reports showing the effects of fermented and non-fermented soy food consumption on the risk of gastric cancer development. The study indicated that a high intake of fermented soy foods increased the risk of gastric cancer while a diet that was high in non-fermented soy foods reduced the risk of gastric cancer.

2. Store-bought items lose beneficial bacteria.
Fermented foods sold in many stores are processed differently than those that are traditionally fermented. They have too much acid and have been pasteurized so they don’t spoil right away. Research has also shown that fermented cheese products contain way too much salt than water.

While eating fermented foods certainly has some disadvantages, this doesn’t mean you have to shy away from it. As they say, always eat a balanced diet and everything should be in moderation.

Let’s suppose a student doesn’t like math but also doesn’t give up on studying it. Why do they go to such great lengths to study a subject they aren’t interested in? This is an example of a student who is extrinsically motivated. They study math despite their dislike for it because they will be rewarded with good grades which gives them satisfaction and pleasure.

Extrinsic motivation isn’t just applicable for students – it’s applicable to everyone. For instance, employees who seek to receive compensation increases or bonuses will work hard in a job they don’t even care for. Although not everyone operates in this manner, it’s not an unusual event. It’s clear that extrinsic motivation comes with advantages and disadvantages. Here’s a closer look at the two:

List of Advantages of Extrinsic Motivation

1. It drives a person to perform a task even if they are not interested in it.
How many times have we done something just for the reward? Take kids for example. They don’t want to do the dishes but they will happily do it knowing there is a certain reward at the end. Adults are also extrinsically motivated, particularly those who work at jobs they don’t even like. For instance, an aspiring writer might work hard at their first job knowing it will lead to better opportunities.

2. It allows a person to set goals.
Having goals is healthy because it gives you something to work hard for. Reaching for your goals is what makes you get up early in the morning. It’s what makes you drive or commute to work despite the heavy traffic. You do it because you know that all your sacrifices will be rewarded.

3. It is a way to survive.
What happens if we constantly give up without a fight? We might lose the will to live and that is something that we shouldn’t let happen. Yes, we may not love our jobs but it’s what pays the bills and keeps us fed. It takes a lot of patience to stay at one job while waiting for better opportunities but as others have proven, it can be done.

List of Disadvantages of Extrinsic Motivation

1. It is not sustainable.
The main drawback of extrinsic motivation is the reward. Knowing you will get something when you complete a task you don’t even care for is enough for some people. However, when that reward is taken away, thoughts race to “What am I doing this for?” Nothing will get accomplished without motivation.

2. It provides diminishing returns.
When the rewards are the same year after year, this likely won’t motivate people to work harder. It has been shown that the bigger the reward, the more motivation someone will have.

3. It makes an activity less enjoyable.
Being motivated solely for the reward can drive people to lose interest in it over time. People lose the desire to do tasks on their own – they constantly need to be motivated.

Although extrinsic motivation isn’t the best motivator, it’s hard to deny its role in getting us moving even when the going is tough.

Forecasting involves the estimation of values we don’t know by using values that we know of. There are many forecasting methods, and exponential smoothing is just one of them. Exponential smoothing is a technique used to detect significant changes in data by considering the most recent data. Also known as averaging, this method is used in making short-term forecasts.

Given that there are many other ways to make forecasts, what makes exponential smoothing better in certain cases compared to others? Also, what makes it not ideal for certain scenarios?

List of Advantages of Exponential Smoothing

1. It is easy to learn and apply.
Only three pieces of data are required for exponential smoothing methods. One, it needs the forecast for the most recent time period. Two, it needs the actual value for that time period. And three, it needs the value of the smoothing constant, a weighting factor that reflects the weight given to the most recent data values.

2. It produces accurate forecasts.
An exponential smoothing method produces a forecast for one period ahead. Using the trend projection technique, forecasts for more periods ahead can then be generated. The forecast is considered accurate as it accounts for the difference between actual projections and what actually occurred.

3. It gives more significance to recent observations.
Observed data is the sum of two or more components, one being the random error which is the difference between the observed value and the true value. In a smoothing technique, the random variation is neglected. As such, it’s much more easier to see the underlying phenomenon.

List of Disadvantages of Exponential Smoothing

1. It produces forecasts that lag behind the actual trend.
The lag is a side effect of the smoothing process. There’s a reason this method has “smoothing” in its name because it neglects the ups and downs associated with random variation. As such, seeing this on a graph shows you a smoother line or curve. But ignoring the random variation also allows you to see the underlying phenomenon, which helps when presenting data and making a forecast of future values.

2. It cannot handle trends well.
Exponential smoothing is best used for forecasts that are short-term and in the absence of seasonal or cyclical variations. As a result, forecasts aren’t accurate when data with cyclical or seasonal variations are present. As such, this kind of averaging won’t work well if there is a trend in the series.

Methods like this are only accurate when a reasonable amount of continuity can between the past and future can be assumed. As such, it’s best suited for short-term forecasting as it assumes future patterns and trends will look like current patterns and trends. While this kind of assumption may sound reasonable in the short term, it creates problems the further the forecast goes.

That said, there are variations of exponential smoothing that can handle trend patterns. Holt’s method can calculate strong trend patterns while Winter’s method can cover a strong trend and seasonal pattern variations.

Evening primrose grows throughout the United States. Native Americans have been using the seeds of the wildflower for food and have used the plant to make poultices to heal bruises. While this has been the case, the use of evening primrose oil (EPO) as medicine is fairly recent.

The seeds of the plant are where the oil is taken from and it’s rich in fatty acid gamma-linolenic acid. The oil is used to relieve symptoms of PMS as well as some arthritis-related conditions. Given its use in treating different medical conditions, is it truly safe?

List of Advantages of Evening Primrose Oil

1. It is used to treat several conditions.
EPO supplements come in capsule form and they are taken to treat various conditions such as:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Premenstrual syndrome
  • Eczema or atopic dermatitis as well as other skin conditions
  • Breast pain during menstruation

Of the four listed above, only research into its use for treating eczema has yielded good results. EPO also contains gamma-linolenic acid and studies have suggested that supplements with such a component can be helpful to those with rheumatoid arthritis.

Although there hasn’t been enough evidence to support its use in treating cancer, EPO has been used as complementary treatments for certain kind of cancers.

List of Disadvantages of Evening Primrose Oil

1. There is limited evidence of its health benefits.
Although EPO does contain an omega-6 essential fatty acid needed for good health, there isn’t enough evidence to suggest that taking this essential oil can improve a person’s health. While it’s true that studies have been conducted regarding its usefulness, most of them were small studies which were badly designed.

It is used to treat different kinds of conditions when taken in capsule form, particularly symptoms of premenstrual syndrome or breast pain. However, studies show that there isn’t enough evidence to recommend its use for such conditions.

2. There are certain risks involved when taking EPO.
Although a good number of people can take EPO without feeling any complications, there are some who have reported various side effects, and these include:

  • Headache
  • Stomach Upset
  • Nausea

There are certain risks in taking EPO among those taking anti-coagulant and anti-platelet medications as it increases the risk of bleeding. The risk of seizes, serious nausea and vomiting is heightened for those who take phenothiazines, which are drugs used for the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

People taking blood pressure medication should also beware as EPO can further drop the pressure. It can also create complications when taken with medication to treat depression.

While the benefits of EPO have been hailed by makers of supplements, it’s still a good practice to ask your doctor before taking it. The last thing you want is for this to cause complications with the medications you are currently taking. That and there is little evidence suggesting that taking EPO and other essential oils are indeed 100% successful in treating various kinds of ailments and conditions.

Native to Australia and cultivated all around the world, the Eucalyptus plant has many uses. It is favored for being a fast-growing source of wood and its ability to drain swamps therefore reducing the threat of malaria. Apart from these, oil from its leaf has a wide range of applications including pharmaceutical, industrial and antiseptic.

Eucalyptus oil is produced by drying, crushing and distilling the leaves of the plant. Although this oil has been used in various applications that are advantageous for many years, there are certain disadvantages to it as well.

List of Advantages of Eucalyptus Oil

1. It can alleviate coughing.
Eucalyptus oil has a long history of being used to relieve coughing. In fact, a lot of the over-the-counter cough medications of today have a bit of eucalyptus oil in them. Vicks VapoRub – applied on the chest and throat to relieve symptoms – has about 1.2% oil from the eucalyptus plant in its composition. Inhaling the vapor loosens mucus in the chest so it’s easier to get out.

2. It acts as a repellant.
As mentioned earlier, the eucalyptus plant is favored for its repellant properties, particularly its ability to reduce the risk of malaria. The good news is that same fighting property is present even in spray form. Brands such as Repel and Off! make use of lemon eucalyptus in order to repel pests.

3. It serves as a disinfectant.
Australian Aboriginals use eucalyptus leaf infusions to treat body pains, sinus congestion, fever and colds. They also used it to treat wounds and prevent infections. A Victorian botanist called Baron Ferdinand von Mueller promoted the disinfectant qualities of eucalyptus in so-called “fever districts.”

List of Disadvantages of Eucalyptus Oil

1. It is toxic when taken orally.
Although there are medications with eucalyptus in them that are taken orally, it must only be done with supervision from a doctor. Eucalyptus is toxic if consumed orally and it can interact badly with other medications. It can act on the liver and as a result affect how other medications are metabolized.

Even applying it on the skin can cause some trouble. For instance, some may develop skin irritation and allergic reactions. As such, it’s best to apply the oil to a small patch of skin to test one’s reaction to it.

2. Its healing properties haven’t exactly been proved scientifically.
Yes, eucalyptus oil has been used for various purposes but there hasn’t been a lot of scientific evidence to prove that it does improve a person’s health.

According to the National Institutes of Health, essential oils may affect the body when breathed in as they stimulate the nose’s smell receptors which then send messages to the limbic system of the brain which then affects emotions and moods.

There haven’t been that many clinical trials to sufficiently truly determine the medical benefits of essential oils.

3. It is pricey.
Eucalyptus oil, just like any other essential oil, may cost a lot. Even purchasing a small bottle can make a dent on the wallet.