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Opposing Viewpoints

As businesses grow and expand, managers are faced with a challenge of choosing a project that can warrant a further investment. Planning on how to allocate capital is a very important skill that managers should learn to avoid spending money on unyielding investments as this will be a wastage of capital. Payback period is a capital management concept which refers to a certain period of time which will be required for a project to generate revenue that will cover the initial revenues invested by the company during the start of that project. For instance, if the initial capital used to start the project was $60000 and the revenue that the project is bringing in each year is $20000 then that means that the payback period of that project would be 3 years.

The choice between two or more investments regarding which one to go with is usually the one with the shortest payback period. This is determined by simply dividing the amount used to start the project and the amount that the project is generating per year. A project with shorter payback period implies higher returns. Numerous companies have maximum acceptable payback period however when they decide on which investment to go with, they will consider projects with less payback period than them. So, what are the advantages and disadvantages of payback period?

Advantages Of Payback Period

The method is popularly used by business analysts because of several reasons;

1. It Is Simple
A significant percentage of companies use employees with different backgrounds to analyze capital projects which is not only biased but a difficult process to understand. On the other hand, payback method looks at the number of years which make it simple and easy to understand.

2. Offers Quick Evaluation
Determining which projects can generate fast returns is important to companies especially those with limited resources. Managers of such companies use this method to make a quick evaluation regarding projects with the small investment and short payback period.

Other benefits include:

  • The term is universal hence can be understood by anyone.
  • It shows the importance of considering liquidity when making investment decisions.
  • It offers the shortest approach to calculating capital expenditure.

Disadvantages Of Payback Method

1. Ignores Time Value of Money
The method ignores the time value of money. A project’s cash inflow might be irregular. Investments are usually long term and continue to generate income even long after they have paid back their initial start-up capital. However, if a project has a long payback period it gets overlooked.

Other disadvantages include:

  • The method emphasizes on liquidity rather than profitability.
  •  Only cash returns within the period are considered.

In paternalistic leadership, people may feel like the situation that they are in is democratic as workers are encouraged to discuss and comment and their questions are answered. However, decisions will be up to the person at top. To know more about the advantages and disadvantages of paternalistic leadership, read on.

List of Advantages of Paternalistic Leadership

1. High employee loyalty due to employees feeling like they are being heard and their needs are met.
2. Good behavior is rewarded by the person at top, often with goods and food.
3. Absenteeism rates and staff turnover will decrease as emphasis is placed on the employee needs.
4. Most decisions will be made with the employees’ best interests taken into consideration
5. Feedback is invited and encouraged, which improves morale and makes employees feel important.
6. There is an open line of communication between the managers and the employees which will keep employees feeling important and satisfied.
7. There is an understanding that the manager wants everyone to succeed, which can result in a lower amount of competition among employees.
8. The manager is given the power to rule from the idea that they are the most capable in making the best decisions for the team, which fosters trust and loyalty with employees.
9. Managers are very involved in the employee’s personal lives, which makes the employee feel more connected at work.

List of Disadvantages of Paternalistic Leadership

1. Just like a parent, managers will sometimes have to discipline the employee in non-traditional ways.
2. Bad decisions from above cause major employee dissatisfaction.
3. The employees will become more and more dependent on the employer, which can cause an increase in necessary supervision in order to get things done in a timely and appropriate manner.
4. If loyalty to the manager is not established quickly then there can be poor staff motivation.
5. Issues can be cased and exacerbated with employee legislation and rights.
6. Employees rely on the leader more than they would in a typical work setting. Because of this, the team can become highly competitive as they all vie for attention and affection.
7. Managers can become blind with their power and make decisions that only benefit themselves.
8. If roles are not well defined and employees do not know what is needed from them there can be power struggles and internal issues.

As you can see, there are many pros and cons to this type of leadership.

Milk is one of the most popularly consumed animal byproducts in the world. While most people can consume milk without any problems, a large part of the world cannot do so for a number of reasons. This is because milk is often filled with lots of natural bacterium and other contaminants that can make it difficult for the otherwise average person to make the most of it. This is something that can be very intimidating to most people, and as a result, most people don’t even think to consume milk, other than to consume it for the purposes of health. However, once you learn more about pasteurized milk, you realize that it has a lot of pros and cons.

List of Pros of Pasteurized Milk

1. Lower Risk of Sickness
With pasteurized milk, you can rest easier knowing that you’re consuming milk that is devoid of most contaminants that would make people sick. This is very important to know because as most people wouldn’t know, it’s something that can cause a lot of headaches, both literal and figurative, assuming you’re not consuming pasteurized milk. By erring on the side of caution, you’ll be drinking healthier milk by making sure it’s pasteurized milk.

2. More Nutrients
With non-pasteurized milk, you’re not getting the same level of nutrients that you would otherwise have in other kinds of milk. This makes it very unique and ensures that you won’t have to worry about any serious health issues. When it comes to other kinds of milk, there is a whole host of other issues that could pop up. This means that if you’re someone that is very concerned about getting the right amount of added nutrients, make sure you’re drinking pasteurized milk.

List of Cons of Pasteurized Milk

1. Lack of Naturally-Occurring Nutrients
Yes, it might sound paradoxical that pasteurized milk would have fewer nutrients, but the truth is that pasteurized milk has fortified minerals rather than naturally-occurring ones. This can be a problem because most fortified minerals and nutrients aren’t as bioavailable as the naturally-occurring counterparts. So sure, you might be getting good-tasting milk, but it isn’t providing the same level of benefits.

2. Hormones and Added Contaminants
Ultra-pasteurized milk often features lots of hormones and other synthetic byproducts. While many of these have no known side effects, we as humans haven’t been consuming them for very long. So the jury is still out on whether or not they’re good for us over many years.

When it comes to the world of medicine, there is so much that comes into play when it deals with sickness and disease. When it comes to getting sick, there are a whole host of reasons why it happens. However, one of the most ironic ways we actually get better is by getting sick through a process called passive immunity. Essentially, your body gets exposed to a disease, like influenza for example, and as a result, you get better because your body learns how to fight it from within. By understanding the importance of passive immunity, you’ll understand how it can be a very good thing, but also, how it can be a very bad thing.

List of Pros of Passive Immunity

1. You Get Stronger
There is an old saying that whatever doesn’t kill you makes you stronger. This is something that plays a big role in the effectiveness of passive immunity. Rather than getting sicker, your body will actually take whatever is hurting your body and learn how to fight it. This is how your immune system gets stronger with age. Without passive immunity, your body would never figure out ways to combat viruses or bacteria. This means that it’s tremendously important to know how to battle these sicknesses if you have serious aspirations of getting healthier or stronger.

2. It Reduced Dependence on Medicine
Thanks to passive immunity, you don’t need to rely on medicine. This means that you can put faith that your body is going to do what it needs to do to make you feel better. Unlike other methods of getting better. passive immunity also ensures that you can save money on expensive procedures or medicines. It is living proof that there is no medicine better than your own body.

List of Cons of Passive Immunity

1. No Guarantees of Success with Every Sickness
One of the biggest issues with passive immunity is that there is no guarantee that you’ll get better from every sickness. Whereas the common cold is something your body can adapt to, something like cancer simply won’t cut it.

2. Risk of Getting Sick Versus Getting Better
If you rely on passive immunity 100-percent of the time, you’re rolling the dice with your health. Sure, sometimes you might get better, but if it’s a serious illness, there is absolutely no guarantee that you’re going to get better.

Be sure to keep these in mind the next time you’re under the weather.

When it comes to hard drives, they are very important because that is essentially the brain of the computer. While many might say the CPU is more like the brain, the fact of the matter is that your hard drive space predicates just how much your computer manages its resources and memory. so rather than thinking of it as any other part of the computer, it’s important to acknowledge just how critical it is to maintain and upkeep this part of your PC. However, one of the most popular methods of doing this is partitioning. Partitioning a hard drive, while a valid way to really improve the flexibility and mobility (in terms of what you can do with your computer) is not without its pros and cons. So it’s important to know all of them before engaging in a hard drive partitioning sequence.

List Of Pros Of Partitioning a Hard Drive

1. Organized
One of the best things about a partitioned hard drive is the fact that it’s neat and organized. Let’s say you have a hard drive with four or five drives. While it is nice to have this much space, the truth is, you’re going to have a lot of messy files laying about. This means that it’s almost impossible to get anything of merit accomplished, so rather than sitting tight and being passive, make it a point to partition the hard drive and get those files organized. With all of those drives compiled and set-up neatly, all of your files, folders, and any other important space-consuming pieces can find a brand new home amongst the newly partitioned hard drives.

2. Data Protection
One of the best things about a partitioned hard drive is the fact that you’ll be able to secure and protect your data. All too often, people commonly set-up a hard drive that doesn’t feature any partitioning. because of this, they would essentially have one giant hard drive disk with all of their information saved to it. As a result, this means any sort of compromised security breach would result in a catastrophic data loss. While some people can afford to lose their data, if you’re someone with lots of important documents and files, a devastating loss of that magnitude could cost you your career or even worse. So rather than taking that risk, by partitioning the hard drive, you can ensure that you have multiple ways of backing up files. Even if one of them get corrupted inadvertently, you’ll at least have the peace of mind of having an extra hard drive to back items up to.

3. Faster Processes
With a partitioned hard drive, it means that information is consolidated and spread about all of the computer’s prime movers. This ensures that you can speedily access files and execute programs, making your computer tremendously more powerful and quick than it used to be. Without a partitioned hard drive, more processes and sequences have to be accessed, meaning that it will just save you time and energy to partition it without any issues.

List Of Cons Of Partitioning a Hard Drive

1. Complicated Process
Partitioning a hard drive, while easy for some, can be very difficult for others. Because of this, it is advised to only consider partitioning as a last resort. There are many other ways you can organize your hard drive, but if you choose to do it in this fashion, you’ll have to be prepared for the consequences. There is no doubt that sometimes the risk of partitioning a hard drive may not be worth it, but without a doubt, even if you decide to go through with it, be prepared for a very drawn out and difficult process.

2. Fake Security Backup
Yes, while partitioning can increase the security of your hard drive, the truth is, you’re more or less giving yourself a false sense of security. This is because that while separating the hard drives is good, there is a lot more that has to come into play before you’re truly backing up your data. For one, if the entire hard disk (that include all of your drives) gets damaged, it means that you’re going to have to find an alternative way to backup your data. It’s almost like having a house. If you partition the hard drive, you’re only moving your valuables to a different room within the house. But if a fire were to burn your house down, even though you moved it to a different room, your valuables are still in big trouble. So rather than relying on a partitioned drive to keep things secure, be sure to have another way to move or store data.

The truth is partitioning your hard drive is not a perfect procedure, but regardless of what option you choose, you have to be prepared for what happens next.

Parenteral nutrition is essentially administration of food or drugs using injections. There are two methods widely used to provide essential nutrients meant for survival and prescribed medicines. One is enteral which is through the mouth or taken orally and the other is parenteral which is an intravenous procedure.

List of Pros of Parenteral Nutrition

1. Fast and Effective Direct Administration
Intravenous injection is deemed the best way to administer medicines as the drug and its constituents are directly injected into the blood. The drug doesn’t have to be ingested, then digested and then absorbed by the blood. The effect of the drug kicks in almost immediately. There is no dependence on the digestive ability of a person. The medicine gets into the bloodstream and has its intended effects without any ambiguity or room for error. The same method is used to provide essential nutrients, which is also effective but there are issues that we shall discuss in the cons.

2. Less Medicine Needed
Since a drug or medicine is injected as a solution using a syringe and the components get delivered directly into the blood stream, very little actual medicine is used in the process. With ingested medicines one has to account for the loss of its components during the digestive process. The need for less medicine doesn’t always reflect in the cost because there is the price of syringes and fees for the nurse or doctor administering the injections.

3. The Only Remedy
In some cases, especially when someone is suffering from serious eating disorders, parenteral nutrition remains the only effective way to provide essential nutrients. The method is also the only remedy when someone is incapable of eating, ingesting or digesting properly.

List of Cons of Parenteral Nutrition

1. Tiresome and Expensive
There is the ongoing cost of syringes, liquid solutions that the drug or essential nutrients must be blended in, the need to have a nurse, doctor or someone who can administer the injection and the overall task of actually injecting the nutrients or medicines make for a tedious repetitive task. Most people don’t like the process after a while. The costs can easily pile up when one has to see a medical or healthcare professional time and again.

2. Safety and Side Effects
There is always a risk of causing injury to the skin, veins or damaging some tissues. There are physical side effects after plenty of injections have been administered. There can be bruises and concealed or unseen wounds.

In the past, offices were the embodiment of paperwork. Office workers were busy sorting and filing some “black and white” documents. You could see them going to work with brief cases filled with paper. Such has been the symbol of office work for a very long time.

However these days, things are very much different. Most offices have already gone digital. Instead of using the old school typewriter, office workers are now using word processor, spreadsheet, and more. In fact, these programs are also becoming obsolete as some companies start using some cloud-based programs such as Google Drive and CRM platforms.

Nowadays, it’s a bit more quiet inside every office. You will no longer hear some noisy typewriters or printers except some keyboard clicks. Is it something that is more advantageous for company owners and employees? For sure, a paperless office has its own pros and cons.

List of Pros of Paperless Office

1. Reduced Cost
Obviously, a paperless office will not any more require you to keep on buying paper. If you are working with tons of paperwork everyday, you can not recycle them for the same task in the same routine. You will have to order more paper so that you will not run out of supply. With the help of computers, software programs, and the internet, documents can be saved and edited electronically.

2. Increased Efficiency
If you rely on paper documents, you need to personally bring it to another person in the office to work on it. Moreover, only one person at a time can read, check, or edit it. This conventional method consumes much time. In a paperless office, documents are created electronically. They can be seen by all users in the same office at the same time and in real time.

3. Quiet Work Environment
It’s always nice to work in a quiet office. This will help you become more productive and accurate in your work because you will be able to focus on tasks with less distractions.

List of Cons of Paperless Office

1. Power Outage
Some office buildings have their own power generators in case of power outage. Although such occurrence is rare, you should not disregard the damage it can cause when it happens. Sudden power disruption may cause you to lose unsaved data or transactions online.

2. Malware Attack
In conventional paper-based offices, malware attack is not a concern except fire hazards. However, the same level of risk awaits a paperless office that is electronically vulnerable to malware.

3. Technical Issues
Even if there is no malware attack, there are times your system will go through some technical issues. This could mean disruption of work or loss of data. Aside from that, frequent issues can greatly reduce your productivity.

Osteopathy deals with musculoskeletal structure of the human body. It is a specialization in medicine that focuses on curing problems in muscles and bones, also in nerves by the virtue of working on the muscles and bones as they are all interconnected. Osteopathy is almost a hundred and fifty years old but manipulation of the musculoskeletal structure dates back several hundreds of years. Osteopathy has its share of advantages and disadvantages.

List of Pros of Osteopathy

1. Noninvasive, No Medication
Osteopathy is noninvasive. There is no surgery. You don’t have to take any medicine. Osteopathy therapies don’t involve any kind of drug. The therapies are almost entirely physical but at times dietary changes are recommended which is not a problem for anyone who is looking for relief to a serious musculoskeletal problem.

2. Relief from Many Ailments
Osteopathy can be used for a plethora of conditions and diseases. Neck pain, back pain, injuries, physical stress or anxiety related stress, tennis elbow, menstrual pain and even asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can be treated with osteopathy. Some conditions can be completely treated while others can be partly cured. Relief is certain with every osteopathy therapy.

3. Preventive Therapy
Osteopathy is not only effective in providing relief and curing a few conditions, it is also a preventive practice. Regular osteopathy therapy can replace massages or spa treatments to have better health, to be more agile and to keep musculoskeletal problems at bay. Various physical anomalies can be prevented with effective osteopathy therapy.

List of Cons of Osteopathy

1. Limited Scope
Osteopathy therapy often doesn’t work in serious cases. Extreme injuries, serious anomalies in the muscles or bones or nerves and complicated ailments cannot be treated with osteopathy and it may not offer any relief in some of these cases.

2. Not Recommended in Some Cases
Osteopathy should not be opted for when someone is suffering from bone infection, joint infection or some kind of unexplained inflammation, bone cancer, ligament tear or damage, rheumatoid arthritis and broken, dislocated or fractured bones among others. Osteopathy may worsen some of these ailments.

3. Side Effects
Osteopathy can have some side effects. There can be fatigue, soreness, mild or severe pain and headaches. These side effects are temporary and subside on their own. It is better to avoid any type of osteopathy therapy if you are on anticoagulant or blood thinning medicines. Osteopathy is not recognized as a mainstream practice and is not regulated in the United States.

Whether we are farmers or not, we all know that the success of any plant relies on how it is cared for. Providing the plant with the right amount of water and sun is a good start, however the difference between someone who really knows what plants requires and someone one who just has basic knowledge on how plants grow lies in the fertilizer.

When referring to fertilizers, the term organic generally means that the product has been minimally processed and therefore the nutrients are still bound up in their natural states instead of being extracted and refined. The term is also used to mean that the nutrients contained in the fertilizer are by-products of an organism or purely derived from an organism. Sewage sludge, fish emulsion, blood meal. Cottonseed meal and manure are some examples of organic fertilizers.

Organic fertilizer are normally sold as “soil conditioners” and not fertilizer due to their nutrient ratios being hard to specify. Organic fertilizers can be processed at a farm as a compost or manure or in a factory.

Pros of Organic Fertilizer

1. Apart from releasing nutrients, when organic fertilizers decompose, they improve soil structure increasing the soil’s ability to retain nutrients and water which eventually will make plants and soil strong and healthy.

2. Since organic fertilizers are slow-release, it is rare to over fertilize and harm the plants

3. The chances of toxins, salts, and chemicals building up in the soil are hardly there, therefore, your plants will be safe.

4. Organic fertilizers are biodegradable, renewable, environmentally friendly and also sustainable.

5. Even though they are a bit expensive in packing as compared to other forms of fertilizers, one can easily come up with his/her won composting or opt for inexpensive sources.

Cons of Organic Fertilizer

1. For organic manure to break down and nutrients are released into the soil, microorganisms are required. And because these microorganisms need moisture and warmth to carry out this process, organic fertilizers get limited seasonally. However, the good news is, the decaying matter in the organic manure itself will provide energy.

2. Organic manure decomposes naturally as nature wishes and hence they might not release nutrients as soon as needed. One has to be patient as improvement won’t be realized overnight. In fact, the plants may show signs of nutrients deficiency in the first months of the application as breakdown hasn’t picked up yet.

3. Nutrient ratios are unknown and their overall percentage is less than that of chemical fertilizers.

Organ transplants are a necessity. When organ transplant is the only difference between life and death or life laden with physical and other complications, there cannot really be any two sides of the argument debating the advantages and disadvantages. However, there are some pros and cons of organ transplants that must be discussed in a pragmatic way.

List of Pros of Organ Transplants

1. Life Saver, Facilitator of Better Life
Organ transplant is a life saver, in other words a life giver. Today, a person with an ailing liver, failing kidneys or heart can hope to live with an organ transplant. A blind person can see. An ailing person may become healthy. There is a myriad of amazing stories from around the world, countless lives being saved or changed for the better. Organ transplants don’t just benefit the recipient but also changes the lives of their loved ones.

2. Furthering Science
Organ transplants are a medical marvel. Works of innumerable people over the centuries have contributed to the modern methods of organ donation and transplant. The present methods are also a phase in further evolution of medical science. What was known about and understood of organ transplant a decade or two ago has evolved and today processes are safer, doctors know much more about most organs and this is a continuous process of getting better. Organ transplant thus plays a significant role in furthering our understanding of our own body and hence it advances medical science as we know it.

3. Unmatched Act of Kindness
Organ transplants allow people with perfectly good organs to donate them so someone can live or have a better life. Many people pledge to donate their organs when they die. This is not only an act of kindness but it is almost godly. There can be no greater joy or even accomplishment than to save someone’s life or to improve someone’s life, even if that person is a complete stranger.

List of Cons of Organ Transplants

1. Possible Risks
Organ transplants require surgery. These surgeries are always invasive. There are substantial risks of organ transplants. It is possible a surgery can go wrong, a particular body can reject an organ, there can be side effects after the procedure is done and a new organ doesn’t always assure a better life. There are case studies where people have died even after a successful organ transplant.

2. The Uncertain Wait
The waiting for an organ can be painful. A recipient may wait forever. The organ may not be available in time. The wait is also painful for the family of a deceased donor. A deceased person will be put on life support and shall be kept under observation and in waiting till the organ or organs are meticulously removed.