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Nuclear fusion is considered as the most basic form of energy used today. It is produced by a nuclear reaction, where two atoms of similar lightweight elements (usually a hydrogen isotope) combine into one molecule of helium to release energy in the form of photons, which are visible as light. Though this technology promises abundant energy, it also has its downsides. Let us take a look at the pros and cons of nuclear fusion.

List of Pros of Nuclear Fusion

1. It is relatively cost-competitive.
Actually, the initial costs of constructing nuclear power plants are high. Aside from this, other investments are to be made for enriching and processing the fuel, controlling and getting rid of waste, and facility maintenance. However, electric generation in reactors is cheaper than that of oil, gas and coal plants, so we can say that it is cost-competitive.

2. It produces high energy density.
According to estimates, the amount of energy released in nuclear fusion is 10 million times greater than that in burning fossil fuels. Consequently, the amount of fuel needed in a nuclear plant is much smaller compared with those of other types of power-generating facilities.

3. It causes less pollution.
In terms of climate crisis, it would be more beneficial to replace other energy-harnessing processes that are being used today with nuclear fusion. Fact is, the environmental impact of this method is relatively light compared to others. However, we should still note that nuclear waste is potentially harmful to both the environment and people.

4. It can be sustainable.
By definition, energy from nuclear fusion is not renewable. However, it can become potentially sustainable by using fusion and breeder reactors. If we can learn how to control atomic fusion similarly as the sun, we can practically have unlimited energy. In this specific point in time, these reactors are still facing serious challenges to be used on a larger scale.

List of Cons of Nuclear Fusion

1. It produces radioactive waste.

Though nuclear power plants only emit negligible amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, its nuclear fuel chain processes, such as mining, enrichment and waste management, do produce radioactive waste.

2. It can cause accidents.
Radioactive waste from nuclear fusion can pose a threat to the workers and environment in the form of accidents. Taking into account the Chernobyl accident, the harmful effects of its radiation on humans can still be witnessed up to this day.

3. It requires extraordinary measures.
In stars, strong gravitational forces and high temperatures naturally create a fusion environment. But here on Earth, we are facing the challenge to make nuclear fuel hot and confined enough to start a self-sustaining ignition.

4. Its practical energy returns are still quite unreachable.
Existing methods for artificially igniting nuclear fusion still require large amounts of energy input even on a small scale for a brief moment. In fact, the world’s biggest tokamak-type fusion reactor today is studying plasma on a large scale, but is still short of the dimensions needed for a productive fusion reactor.

It is important to remember that there is no perfect energy source, and each of the available power resources in the world has its own pros and cons. So, we should weigh them down to know if our chosen energy source would do more good than bad for our society.

The Patriot Act was made after the tragic incident that happened on September 11, 2001. The terrorist attack that happened that day shook the entire nation. Americans were overcome with fear and panic. People were questioning the efforts of the government to combat terroristic activities. After 43 days from the fateful event, the USA Patriot Act was signed and made an official.

The Patriot Act is actually an acronym that stands for The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, which was signed by President George W. Bush enacted on October of the same year.

Thirteen years later, there is still a great deal of debate about the Act’s advantages and disadvantages. Which side would you choose?

List of Pros of the Patriot Act

1. Surveillance can be the easiest.
This is because the Act removes barriers that could hinder a surveillance or investigation of a suspected area or establishment. Before the Act was signed, this was difficult to do because of restrictions.

2. Improved protection.
Law enforcement has now advanced tools necessary to help combat fight crimes associated with terrorism. As a result, police and authorities are better equipped to search people, racially profile certain persons that fit to certain stereotypes.

3. Speedier investigation.
Because there are no barriers to the government’s surveillance, investigations have become faster, preventing any terrorist groups from hiding.

4. Increased security measures.
This Act is considered crucial for safeguard lines of communication to ensure that terrorists won’t be able to easily contact one another.

5. Better results.
Since the Patriot Act was signed, around 400 convictions were terrorism related. This means that millions of lives have been saved by this regulation.

The regulations borne from this Act will help prevent any more attacks because the authorities will have the necessary tools to uncover any terrorism-related activities.

6. Ensured support for victims.
Victims and families of those who lost their lives on that sad day have been given financial and housing support as well as other services.

The enhanced funding offered to individual victims of terroristic attacks is also offered to business owners. This will help them get back on track after the 911 incident.

List of Cons of the Patriot Act

1. Invasion of privacy.
A lot of Americans feel that their privacy is being invaded because this Act allows phones to be tapped and records pulled, which are considered as breach of one’s privacy. Many people are wondering where the line should be drawn on the measures of this Act.

2. Prohibition of an anonymous status.
People won’t be able to choose an anonymous status with the Patriot Act. Information from IP addresses, phones, GPS and the like can be used to locate where potential threats are coming from.

3. Lack of effectiveness.
Detractors are under the impression that the incident that happened at the World Trade Center is an isolated one, since no other attack has occurred afterwards.

4. Vital resources are wasted.
Those who oppose the Patriot Act believe that it is a waste of public funds to track citizens of America as well as those who have moved abroad.

5. Too much power.
Many have also expressed concerns about the sweeping power the government has with this Act. They fear that this can be abused, which can be evidenced by the number of detainees who have been unlawfully taken to Guantanamo Bay.


Some people like to believe that the Patriot Act is just a waste of time and money because it’s hard to determine whether its provisions actually prevented another attack. But others believe that all it needs is to be reevaluated, reanalyzed and adjusted.

Organ donations have saved thousands of lives from across the world already, and currently thousands more people are awaiting for donations. In the U.S. alone, more than 123,000 individuals are in need of one to save or extend their lives. This is why February 14 was declared a National Donor Day in order to bring awareness to these needs and to encourage more people to become organ donors. Organs that can be donated include heart, lungs, kidney, liver, pancreas, intestines and cornea. Bones, veins, skin, middle, middle ear and ligaments can be donated too, though they are seldom in demand.

List of Pros of Organ Donation

1. Save lives
The major pro of organ donation is obvious – to save lives. According to the American Transplant Foundation, the U.S. has more than 123,000 on the waiting list for lifesaving organ transplant. Another name is added to that list every 12 minutes, which means that 124 people need an organ transplant every day. But here’s a sobering fact, there is a shortage of donors. The ATF noted that an average of 21 people die every day due to lack of available organs.

2. Enhance quality of life
More than just extending lives, organ donation can also enhance or improve quality of life. It can restore a person’s sight, hearing, normal functioning of the heart, and so on. In fact, more than 90 percent of corneal transplant have helped hundreds of people to see again.

3. Help grieving families
Many families with loved one who had his or her organs donated at the time of his or her death felt the act has helped them dealt with the loss of that loved one. There is a sense of goodness in knowing that their family member did not die in vain and that a part of that person continues to live on, albeit in someone else’s body.

4. Cost-effective
While organ transplant has high initial cost, it may prove to be cost-effective in the long run when compared to the cost of life-long medical care.

List of Cons of Organ Donation

1. Social stigmas.
“Who” receives the organ can be an issue for some families. Admit or not, there are people who have stigmas against religions, ethnicities and races. This often prevents some from volunteering to be an organ donor.

2. Unethical buying and selling of organs
Here’s a reality, there is a black market out there for some types of organs, especially kidneys. Unethical buying and selling of organs are prevalent in poor countries like Pakistan, Ukraine, Iran and China. In 2006, reports emerged that some state-run hospitals in China were killing prisoners to sell their organs. And just a few months ago, human rights lawyer David Matas and former Canadian MP David Kilgour released a documentary that reveals in gory details China’s underground organ market.


Organ donation can save hundreds of lives; however, it is not always available to everyone. In addition, it is being abused by others, putting other people at risk. The unethical buying and selling of organs can be prevented though if more individuals would choose to become organ donors by partnering with authorized organizations.

Nobody wants frizzy, unmanageable hair. Women are inherently fussy about how they look, more specifically, how their hair looks. For this reason, more and more go to the salon to have their dose of keratin treatment just to get the hair they want – frizz-free, silky, smooth and straight.

Although women would naturally trade a little pain for some gain, they would surely be surprised to find there is more to an ordinary keratin treatment than meets the eye. So before heading to the salon, know the facts about keratin treatment, its pros and cons.

List of Pros of Keratin Treatment

1. Suitable
Keratin treatment is suitable for all hair types. So whether your hair is curly, color-treated, wavy, or artificially straightened, you can still undergo the treatment.

2. Safe
Unlike in traditional hair relaxing and straightening procedures, keratin treatment does not cause permanent damage to your hair. Your hair may even revert to its original state after two or three months, or earlier depending on your after-care regimen.

3. Easy Styling
Treated hair becomes very easy to style. You do not need to heat your hair or apply so many products, which allow your hair to be less prone to chemical damage.

4. Effective
Regardless of how kinky or frizzy your hair may be, you can get straighter, smoother and better-looking crown after the treatment. The look lasts up to three months, after that, your hair reverts to its original state.

5. Low-Maintenance
Keratin-treated hair does not need so much after-care products and procedures to maintain it. You do need to use sulfate free hair products to make the look last longer.

List of Cons of Keratin Treatment

1. Artificial
Keratin is a natural chemical found in hair, teeth and nails. But the keratin applied to hair during treatment is artificially made, and this can irritate the skin and eyes. However, there are no known major side effects to the treatment.

2. Expensive
Keratin treatment is expensive enough, and after-care may not be as much but you must use sulfate-free hair products, which are more expensive than regular hair products.

3. Short-Term
You might need to undergo treatment after two months to maintain your straight, smooth hair. Otherwise, your hair will start to look frizzy and curly again (natural look).

4. Risk of Damage
The chemical itself is safe and effective (except those cheaply made), but it takes an experienced stylist to make the treatment safe and good for you. If the stylist lacks mastery, and recklessly exposes your hair to too much heat and too much chemicals, you get damaged hair.

5. Not for Pregnant Women
Pregnant women are advised not to have their hair treated because it may affect their health and that of their baby. Keratin treatment contains formaldehyde, a chemical that poses health concerns even for stylists.


Keratin treatment is a great way for curly and wavy haired women to don naturally looking straight hair. However, because the treatment necessitates the introduction of artificial chemical, heat and other substances to the hair, the person needs to be aware of the potential risks inherent to keratin treatment.

A lot of people often relegate the flu to ordinary fever. What they don’t know is that influenza is anything but ordinary, and should not be taken lightly. Each year, over 40,000 people die from flu-related causes and send over 200,000 people to the hospitals in the U.S. alone. The medical and hospitalization bills associated with it are no joke. Under the circumstances, prevention is the best course to take.

But what exactly is a flu vaccine? A majority of people receives the shot with no knowledge of what it is or what it really is for. Like most vaccines, the flu shot is made with a form of flu virus that is dead or weakened and would no longer give you influenza. Although there have been cases where the weakened strain of the flu virus or nasal flu vaccine has transferred a virus, it is a rarity.

  • Traditional flu shot protect against three types of flu viruses, while a quadrivalent flu vaccine protects against 4 different flu viruses — two influenza A and two influenza B.
  • Flu shots are seasonal and should be received every year because flu viruses change. This means a different type of vaccine has to be used as well.
  • Based on CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices that have been in place since February 24, 2010, everyone 6 months and older should get a flu shot every season. Children 2 through 8 years old are recommended to have the nasal spray vaccine.
  • People who are 65 years and older should get the high-dose version of the flu vaccine Fluzone, whenever it is available.
  • Some people may require a different type of flu shot, depending on their age, health and allergies.

Despite its use as a preventive measure, there have been questions about the efficacy of the influenza vaccine. Some people claim that it is linked to autism, and may cause allergic reactions. As a means to protect against flu, fever may follow after a shot, which is kind of ironic. So is it good or bad?

List of Pros a Flu Shot

1. Reduces the risk of getting the flu
People who receive the flu shot every season is 70% less likely to have influenza or develop symptoms that are often annoying than painful, such as congestion, cough, fever and body aches. This is according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which leaves little doubt of the fact’s credibility. So, despite what other people may think, influenza vaccine is good for you.

The best time to get the flu shot is during the holiday seasons when everyone is likely to give hugs and kisses that could be a mode of transfer of the flu virus. Or you can have it during the flu season, which makes more sense.

2. Protects against other potentially serious health conditions
Influenza is a common viral infection that is highly contagious, but as long as the patient stays at home and away from crowded areas, the spread of the virus is minimized. Most of the time, a patient will feel better in a few days, but not when he belongs in high risk groups, such as those with weakened immune system, have long-term medical condition, pregnant or elderly.

For these individuals, an influenza attack would complicate to chest infection, worsening of existing conditions, and rare complications, such as meningitis, encephalitis, febrile seizures and tonsillitis. This means protecting yourself against influenza will protect you from life-threatening health conditions. So getting a flu shot to begin with would make you less susceptible to serious complications.

3. Reduces the risk of flu-related deaths among the elderly
The elderly and individuals with chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart diseases, who get vaccinated is 80% less likely to die from flu. As previously mentioned, influenza can worsen existing conditions, which is likely to lead to death. Diabetes patients, for example, would see an increase in their blood sugar levels when they have the flu, potentially leading to hyperglycemia. Under the circumstances, a flu vaccine is the best form of protection.

4. Protects against more than one strain of flu virus
A flu shot protects against 3 to 4 strains of the flu virus, which is something that other vaccines are incapable of. This means you have more protection with just one shot. Whoever said that getting an influenza vaccine is pointless probably didn’t know anything about this particular fact. What is even better is that the newest flu shot not only protects against a strain of H1N1, but also against potential Northern hemisphere contaminants.

5. Lowers the risk of an endemic
Influenza is highly contagious, especially during its early stages. Because the virus takes at least a week to incubate and fully manifest any symptoms, an infected patient could be out and about spreading infections. Before anyone knows it, an entire office, classroom or community is already infected. If you have the flu shot, you would not be the source of disease and you would not be infected by the virus either.

6. Reduces the possibility of pregnancy complications
The flu can prove problematic when it occurs during pregnancy. Although the risks are low, there is a possibility that an expectant mother might go into premature labor because of the flu. It might also have an effect on the baby’s birth weight. In rare instances, influenza has also been associated with miscarriage or stillbirth. Considering the many possibilities, it is highly recommended for a pregnant woman to get seasonal flu shot.

7. Provides a cost-effective preventive measure
A flu shot is often given free, and if it comes with a fee, it is usually at a very low cost, compared to the medical and hospital bills you will incur when you get sick. This explains why companies prefer to spend money on having their employees vaccinated rather than lose plenty of man hours and doling out paychecks that have no output because an employee is at home still recuperating.

List of Cons of Flu Shots

1. Aggravates allergies
The vaccine is cultivated through the inside of a chicken egg, and may cause a reaction to someone allergic to the poultry product. If you are already aware of your egg allergies, it is best to consult with your doctor before getting a flu shot. According to the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, however, the amount of egg protein in influenza vaccine is so low that it is not enough to cause a reaction. Still, they warn against it with patients who have severe egg allergy.

2. Only reduces the possibility of getting sick
Although the shot will protect you against the flu, it will not boost your immune system. If your immunity is weak to begin with, you might still be affected with the flu virus. The flu shot may decrease the risk of you coming down with influenza, but not completely eradicate the possibility.

3. Immediate protection is not guarantee
It takes roughly two weeks before the effect of a flu shot will kick in, which means you are vulnerable within those periods and your immune system might be compromised. In the event that the virus is stronger than your immunity, the flu shot will be rendered useless. Also, if you are already infected by the flu virus before you get the shot, it would lead to the same effect. This is one reason that people would rather not have the flu shot. As much as proponents would like to think an influenza vaccine is all good, this is one reality they have to accept.

4. Contains mercury
Although it only has a small amount of mercury, opponents of flu shot still thinks the presence of mercury can damage a human body’s system one way or another. People who would not want to expose themselves to mercury for any reason, also think negatively of the influenza vaccine. Unfortunately, mercury serves as a preservative and will always be part and parcel of the shot. Experts, however, say that it will not have an adverse effect as long as it is administered by a professional.

5. Has several side effects
People with weak immune system is likely to get sick following a flu shot, which is why some opponents campaign against the vaccine. High fever, aching joints, headache, nausea, runny nose, wheezing and vomiting are also common side effects of a flu. In some cases, bruising and swelling will occur on the area where the shot has been administered. In more serious cases, side effects may include swollen eyes or lips, hives, weakness, trouble breathing, dizziness and changes in behavior.

6. Has certain limitations
Not everyone are qualified to get a shot, those younger than 6 months old, those with severe egg allergies and those that showed allergic reaction to the vaccine. This means that they are vulnerable to the many virus strains of the flu and would have to be protected by other means, which could be more expensive. If they are suffering from existing conditions that could worsen with influenza, their vulnerability increase twofold.

Not everyone sing their praises with a flu shot, but proponents still think they do more good than harm. Do you think a flu vaccine is right for you?

Study shows that more than a quarter of American women cite tubal ligation as their family planning method of choice. This indicates that since its inception in the 1960s, tubal ligation has increasingly become a more preferable method of birth control in the American society.

Women and/or couples, however, have a good range of contraceptive choices. At the onset, one needs to decide whether they want something that works temporarily or permanently. As in the case of tubal ligation, the effect is permanent (1% margin of error), and there is no turning back.

Tubal ligation or tubal sterilization involves tying the fallopian tubes to prevent eggs from going to the uterus. Those who would like their tubes tied, it is highly suggested that the procedure take place immediately after childbirth (postpartum tubal ligation).

List of Pros of Tubal Ligation

1. It is permanent.
With as little as 1% margin of error, tubal ligation is one of the most effective ways not to get pregnant ever again. Unlike those so-called long-lasting methods, ligation is forever.

2. It brings confidence.
Even the traditional method of tube tying is virtually more effective than other forms of contraception, outside abstinence. A couple never has to worry about unwanted or unplanned pregnancy.

3. There is no need for schedules.
After getting the tubes tied, the couple no longer needs to mind a woman’s ovulation cycle, schedule of contraceptive vaccine, intake of pills or replacement of IUD. They can have sex without worries.

4. It works immediately.
Once the woman’s tubes are tied, she is immediately protected for life, save for the 1% margin of error. And if the procedure was done after childbirth, the cut heals simultaneously with childbirth cuts.

5. It does not disrupt hormone levels.
Unlike other contraceptive methods like pills and vaccines, tubal ligation does not cause hormonal imbalance and does not affect sex drive, and a woman continues to have her period.

List of Cons of Tubal Ligation

1. It is irreversible.
Once the woman’s tubes are tied, the effect is permanent. If the woman does fell pregnant, it is accidental and very rare.

2. It may cause regret.
If a woman undergoes the surgery, and then suddenly wants to get pregnant again, she may regret having her tubes tied in the first place. This is especially true for those who are still in their reproductive age.

3. The woman might feel cheated.
Unless it is clinically mandatory, a couple needs to discuss and decide together what type of contraceptive to use, permanent or reversible, seasonal or long-lasting. The couple also needs to decide who needs to undergo the permanent birth control method because men can also be permanently sterile by undergoing vasectomy.

4. It has side effects.
Tubal ligation is not free from side effects. The surgery may cause theoretical damages to a woman’s internal organs, not to mention the effects of anesthesia.

5. There is a possibility of tubal pregnancy.
If the procedure fails, it may cause tubal pregnancy, which is very painful and very risky to both mother and child.

Planning the size of the family is a sign of being responsible parents. While there are numerous ways to control pregnancy, tubal ligation among women is permanent. A couple needs to decide they are done having children and resolute about having the woman undergo tubal ligation.

Also called dreads or Jata, dreadlocks are usually formed intentionally. But the methods used to create such hairstyle can vary depending on the hair texture.

The roots of dreads can be traced back to North Africa. In ancient Egypt, Egyptians wore locked hairstyles and wigs. This was evidenced by the images found in statuary, bas-reliefs as well as mummified remains of Egyptians with locks were recovered from various archaeological sites.

So, how can you form dreadlocks?

Backcombing is possibly the best way to create dreads, which is also what most salons use. To get the best results, you’ll need the help of a friend as doing it on your own can be particularly difficult.

Backcombing is the method of dividing your scalp into sections. Using a steel-toothed comb, brush the hair from the tip inwards towards the scalp. This makes your hair frizzy and knotted together.

You can also form dreadlocks out of neglect. You can choose to do absolutely nothing with your hair for a long time. This will also cause your hair to be knotted, making it dreadlock ready.

Alternatively, you can buy dreadlock extensions if you want instant dreads. You can opt for this method if you want to see how dreads would look on you.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of having dreadlocks?

List Of Pros Of Dreadlocks

1. Problem with knots.
When you have dreadlocks, you won’t have to worry about having knotted hair. You don’t need to tearfully and painfully comb it out. You’ll even be happier with knots since that way, it will easier to form locks.

2. Fashion statement.
With interlocked hair, you always have a fashion statement that goes with your style. Dreads also make you look fierce yet chill at the same time, no matter what you wear.

3. Confidence booster.
Because dreads make for an excellent fashion statement, you can express your individuality and be comfortable in your own skin. This means that you can be ten times more confident with your locks.

4. Maintenance.
Dreadlocks are virtually maintenance-free because for one, you don’t need to wash your hair that often. Water can loosen and thin out your locks. Washing them every two weeks or longer is more preferable. Overtime, you’ll be able to build your hair’s stamina, which means that you can go longer without washing it.

5. Bad hair days.
Because your hair stays the same day in and day out, you won’t have to worry about bad hair days anymore. This means that you can have great hair every day, whether you’re going to the office or out on a date.

List Of Cons Of Dreadlocks

1. Unwanted attention.
Some people have negative connotations about dreadlocks. This could get you into trouble especially with the authorities. Others could keep away from you because of their wrong notion about dreads.

2. Time-consuming.
You might need a bit more time to make them grow longer. Unless you have long hair before turning them into locks, you’ll have to wait a while to have really long dreads.

3. Hygiene.
Because you can’t wash your hair all the time, lint, fur and other dirt could get stuck in your hair, it could make your scalp itchy.

4. Comfort.
You might find it difficult or uncomfortable to sleep on them during the first few days or weeks. Some people never really grew fond of sleeping on them.


Dreadlocks are a cool thing to sport. But it may not be for everybody. If you can’t stand awkward stares or the stereotyping, then it may not be for you.

With continued advancements in technology, the auto industry has enjoyed innovations since time immemorial. Carmakers, engineers and scientists always had new inventions to create more efficient, comfortable and most of all, powerful rides. One of the many developments in the world of cars is changing how they are fueled.

In the ongoing quest for a cleaner, safer environment, many scientists and engineers have created eco-friendly ways to power cars. This is why we now have hybrid and electronic cars. But the most recent development is the invention of E85. What is it?

E85 is the abbreviated form of its composition, which is 85 percent denatured ethanol fuel and 15 percent gasoline or other hydrocarbon. The ethanol content is usually adjusted to suit local climate, ensuring engine performance is optimized. The allowable fuel ethanol content ranges from 51 to 83 percent, according to ASTM 5798. In the United States and Europe, E85 is generally used in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs).

Is E85 really better than conventional gasoline?

List of Pros of E85

1. Improvement of energy independence.
Despite having its own crude oil reserves, a large portion of the United States is still dependent on fuel from politically unstable parts of the Middle East. With the possibility of trade restrictions drying up fossil fuels or prices to go higher, reducing its use could give way to energy independence here and abroad.

2. Increase in job opportunities in the US.
If the use of ethanol fuel goes in full swing in the country, more companies will be put up to cater for such demand. When that happens, it could open up more job opportunities for the people.

3. Keeps money in the local economy.
When the US stops importing oil from the Middle East and keeps money with local farmers and makers of ethanol, the economy will greatly improve.

4. Safer environment.
Ethanol is cleaner than gasoline as carbon dioxide from its production is absorbed by other plants. Although this greener fuel still releases CO2 when burnt, it is still significantly lower than regular gasoline.

5. Presence of E85-ready vehicles.
Today, there are around seven million GMC cars that can run E85, which are called flex-fuel vehicles. By giving people an option to use greener fuel, pollution in the environment would finally have a solultion.

List of Cons of E85

1. Difficult to find.
This is because E85 isn’t available in all gas stations yet. Currently, there are around 2,100 refueling stations that offer this fuel in the United States, but there are 6 states that don’t have a single station. Lucky for those who live in the Upper Midwest because they have the most number of gas stations that offer E85 since they are close to the corn belt.

2. Requires fossil fuels to produce it.
Tractors and other farm equipment used in planting and growing corn use petrol. This means that growing, harvesting and producing this fuel still has some level of environmental impact.

3. Food vs. fuel.
Critics say that producing ethanol as fuel can drive up the price of corn, making it expensive and even unavailable. However, advocates disagree because they contend that more than 90 percent of corn grown in the US is used s livestock feed, not human food.


If you want to reduce CO2 emission, it is best to use ethanol gasoline. But your main challenge could be finding a gas station to refill your vehicle’s tank.

Sexual reproduction is a crucial process in the continuance of life on Earth. Some animals and plants use this to produce new organisms. Humans have offspring using this method, too.

What is sexual reproduction?

A male and female are required for this process to occur. During this type of reproduction, sex cells called “gametes” are generated. These contain half of the chromosomes from both male and female, creating the new organisms.

There two types of sexual reproduction.

Syngamy – This is the complete and permanent fusion of two gametes, which creates a zygote. In humans, this type of reproduction is called fertilization. It is also called isogamy if the two fusing gametes are physiologically and morphologically similar with each other.

Conjugation – This is the pairing of male and female to exchange gametes through temporary cytoplasmic bridge.

Aside from producing new organisms, are there other pros and cons of sexual reproduction?

List Of Pros Of Sexual Reproduction

1. Expanding effect.
This is crucial for the multiplication of species. This is because sexual reproduction ensures that an allele (one of two or more parts of a cell that determines characteristics) will find a partner to reproduce genes for people to continue to exist and survive in any habitat.

2. Preserved effect.
Sexual reproduction helps preserve an existing allele’s genetic code to ensure that a certain specie does not mutate.

3. Variation.
Reproducing new organisms sexually creates species that can adapt to any environmental changes. Because of the variability of the new organisms produced through this process, there is a higher chance for evolution to happen. With a mixture of traits among offspring, genetic defects might not be passed on. However, this process requires certain amounts of energy when it comes to finding a mate, which means that this reproduction may not be suitable for organisms that are isolated or are unable to move from one place.

4. Pleasure and enjoyment.
These benefits are mostly associated with humans. When two people engage in sexual reproduction, they can gain a sense of enjoyment and pleasure. Aside from the positive feeling that such a physical experience can produce, the joy of having children and helping in the procreation is beyond compare.

List Of Cons Of Sexual Reproduction

1. Genetic malfunction.
The continued reproduction of a species has a higher chance of creating complex genetic processes that could lead to abnormalities in their offspring. This is because sexual reproduction is less efficient in passing favorable genes combinations.

2. Time consuming.
Reproducing offspring sexually takes more time than asexual means. This is because male and female copulation does not happen instantly. Aside from that, it takes nine months for a human being to conceive and produce children. For animals, it takes a few month before they can reproduce. As for plants, it takes years for some trees to bear fruits, which is why breeders prefer the asexual process.

3. Imbalance in the ecosystem.
If sexual reproduction goes out hand, there will be overpopulation. As a result, the ecosystem will lose its balance, destroying the food chain. What’s worse, any having dominant species can trigger extinction of other species coexisting in the same habitat.


Everyone knows that sexual reproduction is crucial for the continuance of the human race as well as other living organisms. But it helps to be aware of its advantages and disadvantage to ensure that people will learn to weigh things, especially the consequences.

Offshoring is considered one of the methods for businesses to achieve globalization without spending a lot of money. After all, the cost of production and operation can spell the difference between a company’s success and failure, and offshoring presents a more cost-effective way. It not only saves money, but also enhances profitability. So it is no surprise that factories are moving their operations overseas, or that banks are outsourcing customer service and technical support abroad.

But there are problems associated with offshoring, including cultural and political concerns. While it is touted as cost-effective, it also has hidden costs.

List of Pros of Offshoring

1. Offers cost differentials
One of the reasons the companies are moving their operations overseas is the lower labor costs. Compared to paying employees in the United States, it is more affordable to pay foreign workers. Employers can also save from health insurance, Medicare taxes, workers compensation, Social Security and other expenses associated with local employees.

Cost of certain materials is also cheaper, especially if they are produced in the country where a company is offshoring jobs. More savings can be enjoyed in countries with fewer regulations as well.

2. Provides jobs in developed nations
Most companies in highly developed countries move some of their operations to developed countries with excessive unemployment rates. By offering more jobs to the locals, the situation and economy of the developed nation are sure to improve. This will not only provide more job opportunities, but also improve diplomatic operations. It can also reduce immigration problems, since locals would not need to work abroad or move to more developed countries just to earn more than what is being offered domestically.

3. Improve business operations
Offshoring to countries with different time zones will enable companies to provide customer support 24/7 and cater to consumers in other parts of the word. This will surely enhance a company’s reputation in terms of taking care of their clients.

List of Cons of Offshoring

1. Incurs costs in certain aspects
A company may be able to save money from lower wage, but they might spend more in training and supervising overseas employees. In the end, the cost differential might not be as pronounced or one that can be clearly felt by the pocket. Products may be cheaper to produce abroad, but the cost of shipping them may not be as cheap.

2. Problems with quality control
In the case of a manufacturing firm, for example, ensuring that the product is built according to company standards may not be as easy as when the item is produced locally. It would be hard to keep an eye on the overall operation. Even if there are guidelines provided, barriers pertaining to language, culture and overseas supply chains might still affect quality control.

3. Affects domestic employment rates
Because majority of jobs are sent offshore, very few would be made available to the locals, increasing unemployment rates. This can cripple the US economy. This can also hurt the public image of a company, especially when use of labor abuse, environmental damage, and child labor will be associated with the firm.

Is offshoring good for your business? Make sure to analyze the pros and cons before you make a decision.