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Opposing Viewpoints

A radio telescope is used to detect radio emissions. These emissions may come from artificial satellites or from natural objects in the sky. They bring the emission to a focus, then amplify it, allowing for other instruments to analyze what has been received.

Here are the pros and cons of radio telescopes to think about.

List of the Pros of Radio Telescopes

1. They expand our research options.
Unlike other telescopes, radio telescopes are not blocked by celestial dust or debris. They can go through these materials without being reflected or absorbed. That allows researchers to “see” what is happening within a dust cloud, a gas giant, or similar object.

2. We can research more of our universe.
Our universe is primarily composed of hydrogen. In the vastness of space, the cold temperatures make it impossible for hydrogen to emit within the visible spectrum. It does, however, emit in the radio spectrum. Radio telescopes allow us to examine these emissions to learn more about the universe.

3. They can operate continuously.
Radio telescopes can work in virtually any condition. They operate in daylight or at night. They can operate in virtually any type of weather. That means research doesn’t have to stop just because the Earth has rotated or a storm has come in.

List of the Cons of Radio Telescopes

1. There are limited areas to construct new radio telescopes.
Many of our forms of communication are based on radio waves. Televisions, phones, radio stations, and satellites all send information through the radio spectrum. That means a radio telescope must be built in an area with virtually no human population centers to be usable. Most radio telescopes are built in the desert.

2. They have a complex construction.
Radio telescopes are actually composed of several dozen large, precise antennas instead of a single telescope option. This is necessary because the radio signals they detect are very low in energy. That means an array can demand a lot of land space to be operational.

3. The main dish cannot be steered.
To move the point of reception, the receiver must be moved instead of the dish. That requires a radio telescope to have a spherical design.

These radio telescope pros and cons show us that this technology has helped us to explore our universe. The advantages don’t come without a cost, however, but they can be easily managed in most circumstances.

Limestone is a very valuable natural resource. It is a sedimentary rock that is typically composed of marine organisms. If you’ve found a deposit of limestone, then what you’re really seeing are the skeletal fragments of forams, coral, and molluscs. It is about 10% of the total amount of sedimentary rock found on our planet.

Quarrying limestone is the process of removing this material from the ground. As with any quarrying process, there are certain pros and cons that must be evaluated.

List of the Pros of Quarrying Limestone

1. It can be an economic engine.
Quarries can provide numerous jobs at the local level. People can work at the quarry to extract the limestone that is needed. Drivers are needed to transport the limestone to where it will be processed or used. Processing facilities hire handlers to create usable products from the delivered materials. Local service industries are needed to support these workers.

2. It is often in high demand.
The market for limestone is remarkably consistent. Quarried limestone can be used to neutralize acidity, so it can be added to soils or lakes. Limestone is used in the iron manufacturing industry, is required for cement, concrete, and mortar mixes, and is heated with sand and sodium carbonate to create glass.

3. It is extremely affordable.
Compared to other building materials, the cost of quarried limestone is much lower than most options. A 50-pound bag of limestone chips, for example, can be purchased for around $30. Limestone pavers are about $300 per every 100 square feet of coverage. Although costs are dependent upon the amount of refinement and the final purpose of it, there are few other materials that can match the cost profile of quarried limestone.

4. It is durable.
Quarried limestone is a durable building material. The Great Pyramids were built using limestone. Modern buildings have stood for centuries with this material. It is also easily accessible near the surface, which makes it possible for most quarries to have a minimal impact on the surrounding environment. At the same time, it also handles exposure relatively well.

5. It can restore historical landmarks.
Most of today’s landmarks are built with limestone. Quarried limestone is the only option available to us that will allows us to maintain or restore these heritage items to a state that was similar to their original construction.

6. Quarried limestone has unique filtering properties.
The alkaline properties of limestone, along with its unique composition, make it an effective filter for numerous applications. It is the foundation of air purification and water treatment systems of almost any size.

List of the Cons of Quarrying Limestone

1. They can permanently disfigure the environment.
Many limestone quarries can be seen from a great distance away. In many cases, the quarrying work creates changes to the natural landscape that cannot be repaired. That means once the quarry has been established, it often becomes a permanent part of that community, even if it is not being used. Quarries are known to cause sinkholes, damage groundwater tables, and increase the risks of experiencing soil erosion, even when managed properly.

2. Quarries create difficult traffic patterns.
Limestone quarries may create jobs, but they also create costs. Traffic can be a major problem for small communities near a quarry. There may be infrastructure costs required to support the quarry before it can begin operations. Noise pollution, traffic exhaust, and other related traffic problems become part of the experience as well.

3. They can have a negative impact on wildlife habitats.
Indigenous animals, insects, and tress all struggle to survive when a limestone quarry is established. Digging into the ground to remove this natural resource skews the balance of the ecosystem in a way that can make it difficult for many local species to survive.

4. Quarries may have a negative health impact.
Stringent health and safety regulations can offset some of the negative health impacts that quarrying limestone may cause, but not all of them. Inhaling the dust from a limestone quarry is known to cause silicosis and pneumoconiosis. Local populations may suffer from changes to sleep patterns and the increased stress from the quarry can cause unique and unpredictable health concerns.

These quarrying limestone pros and cons show us that we can experience many benefits from this natural resource, but there are several important negatives that must be managed as well. If we take care of the environment, we can benefit from what it provides. If we do not, then the benefits from limestone – or any other resource – will be fleeting at best.

Purposive sampling is a non-probability sample. It is selected based on population characteristics and study objectives. It may be referred to as subjective or selective sampling. It is also known as judgmental sampling.

Here are the purposive sampling pros and cons to think about and discuss.

List of the Pros of Purposive Sampling

1. It reaches a targeted sample quickly.
Purposive sampling provides options. When a targeted sample needs to be reached quickly, the different types of sampling make it possible to make generalizations from the results that are being studied.

2. There are numerous types available.
Purposive sampling has 7 different primary types. This allows researchers to find homogenous samples, perform typical case sampling, seek out deviant case sampling, or look at characteristics from an entire population.

3. Research designs can involve multiple phases.
Each phase in purposive sampling can build upon the previous one. That means different sampling technique types can be used in each phase, which makes it possible to achieve a wider range of non-probability sampling for researchers to draw conclusions upon. It allows for identifying phenomena that may require further investigation.

List of the Cons of Purposive Sampling

1. Proportionality is a problem.
Purposive sampling does not account for proportionality as one of its primary concerns. The goal is to find a range of cases to provide as much insight as possible in the fastest amount of time.

2. It is prone to researcher bias.
Purposive sampling is based on the researcher. That means their conscious or unconscious bias goes into the data being collected. That bias may make the data seem to be valid, but it can also influence the data and provide false results.

3. It can be difficult to defend.
Because researchers use their judgment in selecting cases, people, or targets for purposive sampling, it can be difficult to defend the conclusions that are reached from the data. Readers typically need additional convincing through other forms of data gathering to find that the results from this type of sampling are valid.

These purposive sampling pros and cons show that it can be a fast form of data collection. They also show that there is an inherent bias that researchers must account for in their work to validate the data they collect.

Proton therapy is a form of radiation therapy that is used to destroy cancer cells. It provides a targeted beam of radiation to an affected area so that damage to healthy tissues can be minimized.

Here are some of the pros and cons of proton therapy to consider.

List of the Pros of Proton Therapy

1. It provides precise radiation therapy.
Proton therapy can provide extreme targeting of cancer cells that would normally be difficult to appropriately treat. It provides an option to treat tumors that are near vital organs or children who need their developing structures to be preserved.

2. It treats a comprehensive range of cancers.
Compared to other treatment options, proton therapy is more of a universal option for those diagnosed with cancer. It is used to precisely target tumors and the match treatments to the exact size of the tumor.

3. It has a short life.
Proton therapy has a low radiation risk compared to other radioactive treatment methods for cancer. After a treatment session, a patient can leave their treatment room without exposed others to radiation.

4. It can allow people to maintain an active lifestyle.
Most people are able to maintain their activities while being treated with proton therapy. That includes being able to maintain their employment.

List of the Cons of Proton Therapy

1. There are no comparative studies.
No studies exist that appropriately compare proton therapy to traditional therapy options for treating cancer. In 2010, a report issued by the ECRI Institute concluded that proton therapy was only appropriate in about 15% of all cancer cases.

2. Dosing levels can be inconsistent.
Individuals have different treatment needs. The lack of data with this treatment option is another concern. There are few best practices available with proton therapy simply because optimal dosing must come through a trial and error process.

3. It is costly.
In August 2010, Hampton University opened a proton therapy center at the cost of $225 million. The average cost of a facility that treats just 4-5 people can cost $150 million. Even a single-suite option is upwards of $30 million.

Being diagnosed with cancer can be a devastating experience. These proton therapy pros and cons show that even in difficult circumstances, there is still hope to be found.

Protein shakes are a dietary supplement that can be used to lose weight, improve athletic performance, or positively impact recovery times after an intensive workout. They can be purchased as a ready-made product or in powder form to be created at home.

Here are the pros and cons of protein shakes to consider if you’re thinking about adding them to your routine.

List of the Pros of Protein Shakes

1. They provide weight maintenance.
Drinking a protein shake provides an opportunity for losing weight or maintaining a current weight. As part of a meal replacement program, people attempting to lose weight can lose more overall weight compared to those following a standard diet. That is because the average protein shake has fewer calories than any full meal.

2. They are convenient.
Drinking a shake is fast and convenient. It only takes a few minutes to prepare and makes you feel as full as a balanced meal. You can even use fresh fruit with the shake to maintain a complete nutritional profile.

3. They are affordable.
Although you may pay upwards of $100 for a protein shakes mix, you’ll receive multiple shakes from that container. That reduces the cost per servings price dramatically. Most protein shakes are priced at less than $0.50 per serving.

List of the Cons of Protein Shakes

1. On their own, they do provide nutritional loss.
Protein shakes cannot be a full meal replacement. Even if healthy levels of carbohydrates and fats are included with the shake’s formula, the levels of phytonutrients and antioxidants found in a full meal are not found in a protein shake.

2. It won’t provide instant success.
A protein shake is a tool. When used properly, it can help people lose weight or improve their workout performance. If you don’t work out or don’t change your caloric intake levels, however, a protein shake can cause people to gain weight instead of losing it – and not muscular weight.

3. They don’t usually taste very good.
Protein shakes can be challenging to drink because of their flavor. Even with multiple flavors available, many people find that they must add something to the shake to make it palatable.

These protein shakes pros and cons are just the beginning. It can be a tool to improve personal health, but may not be the right choice for everyone. As with any dietary plan, consult your doctor with any specific questions you may have.

With a pressure cooker, it becomes possible to cook foods within an airtight environment. The cooker raises the temperature inside by boiling liquids, allowing for rapid steaming or raising. It takes about 2 cups of fluids, such as chicken stock, to create a pressure cooking effect.

Here ae the advantages and disadvantages which come when this method of cooking is used.

List of the Advantages of Pressure Cooking

1. It cooks food much faster.
A pressure cooker can complete the cooking process about 30% faster than conventional cooking methods.

2. It saves energy.
Because of the shortened cooking times, pressure cooking takes less energy to complete a meal as well. Compared to some cooking methods, using a pressure cooker could save up to 75% off normal energy use.

3. It retains more nutrients.
Foods that are cooked within a pressure cooker maintain more of their vitamins and minerals compared to foods that are boiled. For that reason, many foods that come out of a pressure cooker are said to taste better.

4. It can be used at any altitude.
Water boils at lower temperatures at higher elevations. A pressure cooker can create a stable atmosphere with its unique design, allowing for constant and precise pressures to be used for cooking. That creates faster and more consistent results.

List of the Disadvantages of Pressure Cooking

1. It takes time to learn how to use one.
Recipes must be altered when using a pressure cooker. There is less evaporation through this cooking process, so more liquid is retained within the pot.

2. It requires timing.
The pressure within a pressure cooker locks the unit in place. That pressure must be released to open the lid safely. That means users can’t check on the condition of their food because if they lose pressure, they must start over. Cooking, therefore, relies on timing more than anything else.

3. It is easy to overcook items.
It only takes a couple of minutes for foods to overcook when using a pressure cooker. That is why it is usually better for beginners to use a cookbook specifically for pressure cooking until they get used to this kitchen tool.

These pressure cooking advantages and disadvantages are an introduction to this method of cooking. It can be an enjoyable experience, but one must take the disadvantages into account for the advantages to come forth.

Powdered milk is a manufactured dairy product, formed when liquid milk is evaporated. Powdering the milk allows it to be preserved without refrigeration without limiting the varieties available to consumers. Buttermilk, whey products, non-fat milk, and whole milk can all be dried in bulk.

Here are the advantages and disadvantages that powdered milk provides from a nutritional standpoint.

List of the Advantages of Powdered Milk

1. It can be fortified.
Because the milk has been evaporated and turned into a “dust,” it is an easy product to fortify. Many powdered milks have added vitamins, calcium, or even iron so that the daily recommended amount of each item is easier to achieve.

2. It tends to be cheaper.
Powdered milk can be reformulated into a milk product by following a few basic steps. It creates more milk per container than regular milk if it were purchased at the store. That allows families on tight budgets to better meet their needs.

3. It can be used in baked goods.
Adding powdered milk to baked goods doesn’t change the result of the recipe. It can be added in the powdered form or reformulated and added as a wet ingredient, providing some versatility in the kitchen.

4. It is very easy to carry.
Most powdered milk products come in an air-tight container that preserves the product. You can take it anywhere and use it whenever there is a need without worry.

List of the Disadvantages of Powdered Milk

1. It doesn’t taste like milk.
The flavor of powdered milk is somewhat different than the flavor of regular milk. It can be quite off-putting to someone who is not used to the difference.

2. It doesn’t have a lactose-free option.
Since 1995, there has been at least one low-lactose powdered milk available to consumers. There is not a lactose-free option, however, so those who are sensitive will still need to look for an alternative product.

3. It doesn’t always mix up as it should.
If you get the mixture ratio wrong, powdered milk can turn into clumpy milk. You can get large clumps that are wet on the outside, but dry on the inside. That can turn this product into something that is very unappetizing rather quickly.

These powdered milk advantages and disadvantages show us that this product can be a viable dairy alternative, but it may not be right for everyone.

Raising chickens can be a lot of fun for the entire family. It’s a chance to break into small-scale farming, create a family business, and reduce food insecurity.

These poultry farming advantages and disadvantages can help you decide if raising chickens is right for you.

List of Advantages of Poultry Farming

1. Chickens provide multiple food resources.
If you begin raising chickens, then you’ve got choices. You can raise chickens for meat and be able to replenish your food supply once per quarter. Hens can also provide eggs that reduce food insecurity.

2. It can be profitable.
Depending on where you live, one dozen farm-fresh chicken eggs can be priced at $4-$5. Even at the lower end of the pricing spectrum, a dozen goes for around $2. If your hens are laying a dozen eggs per day, that’s some easy cash that begins to add up.

3. Chickens can reduce stress levels.
Chickens have unique personalities. They might try to fly somewhere and fail. Some might run into your fencing and then think the sky is falling. Spending time with chickens can definitely lower cortisol levels.

List of Disadvantages of Poultry Farming

1. It is a monetary investment.
You’ll need to install a chicken house and coop to protect your chickens. Poultry netting can run as high as $400 for a single coop. Small coups can be found for around $300 if you just want a handful of hens running around. Feed and bedding have costs to consider as well.

2. It is a time investment.
The chickens need to be put in every night to avoid predators. Someone will need to feed them for you if you go on vacation. Without enough food, water, and grit, your time as a poultry farmer will be short.

3. Chickens are filthy birds.
Poultry farming requires the bedding in a chicken coop be replaced about once per month. You may need to avail your coop for inspections if you sell food products. Without proper cleanliness, an entire farm could be wiped out with just one illness.

Before you get started, be sure that your current property codes allow for chickens to be on your property. If it is allowed, then these poultry farming advantages and disadvantages will help you make the best possible decision.

Polarized lenses are coated with a specific chemical film. Many sunglasses have this film laminated directly to the lens, but new technologies allow for the polarization to be included with the injection molding process as they are manufactured.

Do polarized lenses really make a difference in how people see? Here are some of the advantages and disadvantages to think about.

List of the Advantages of Polarized Lenses

1. They help to reduce glare.
Because your eyes are no longer challenged by sunlight glare with polarized lenses, there aren’t the same levels of visual fatigue present. The people who benefit the most from this glare reduction are those who work in or around the water, but everyone can benefit from this advantage in some way.

2. They reduce the harmful effects of ultraviolet light.
Although UV sunglasses are your best option to filter out ultraviolet light, polarized lenses can reduce the amount of exposure. Look for sunglasses which state that they reflect or filter 99-100% of UVA and UVB light for best results. The specific wavelength filtering is usually listed on the product as well. For example: lenses that filter wavelengths up to 400nm will state that they are UV400 sunglasses.

3. They allow for sight clarity.
Without glare, polarized lenses can enhance vision clarity once they are worn. There is an improved contrast level that makes it possible to have more definition with objects seen or to peer through reflective surfaces to see what might be lying underneath. Color visibility is improved through polarized lenses as well, providing more of an authentic view than the darkened view that other lenses tend to provide.

4. They can be used in bright conditions.
Polarized lenses permanently reduce glare, so they can be used in even the brightest of conditions. That allows for better user comfort, which makes it possible to stay productive in a wide range of environmental conditions.

List of the Disadvantages of Polarized Lenses

1. They change how people see.
When wearing polarized lenses, you can see the tempering patterns in glass that is installed on automobiles. Watching something on an LCD screen can be difficult since images can disappear at certain angles. For this reason, certain professions are prohibited from using them because of the difficulties that they can cause. It’s also tough to see some smartphone screens when wearing these lenses.

2. They eliminate contrast in snowy conditions.
Polarized lenses are often recommended for skiers and snowboarders because of the glare reduction benefits, but there can be a disadvantage as well. In the light white conditions of snow, the polarization can remove the slight variations of contrast that can help to distinguish between ice patches and snow patches. Small elevation changes ca be difficult to detect as well.

3. They tend to cost more.
Although one can find polarized lenses at almost every price point, including $15 or less, they do tend to cost more on average than regular sunglasses. It is an investment which makes sense if the lenses are needed for some reason, but may not be a justifiable cost if polarization is not required. Cost is not a reflection of quality either. Some expensive lenses do not meet industry standards, but some value-priced lenses do meet expectations.

4. They might not be suitable for some environments.
Because many of the cheaper polarized lenses tend to have the chemical film laminated to their surface, certain environments can prematurely reduce their lifespan. People who leave in coastal areas that have high levels of saltwater exposure will often see the film begin to crack, peel, and separate from the lens. Even human sweat, if exposed to the lenses for too long, can cause a similar experience.

5. They may be of no benefit, depending on the light angle.
Although polarized lenses can reduce vertical and horizontal planes of glare, they can also become ineffective when the light source is at certain angles. This becomes problematic at times when the sun is in its rising or setting stages, as well as when it is directly overhead. If driving during these times, one may find the lenses provide little benefit. Some road obstacles that are of the same color as the road may be missed as well.

These polarized lenses advantages and disadvantages look at the practical aspects of ownership. Whether you have them on your sunglasses or some other product, like goggles or even your camera, there are also unique, individualized benefits that this product provides that only you can discover.

Pivot tables are program tools that allow users to summarize or reorganize rows or columns of data. They are usually found in database tables and spreadsheets, allowing for information to be obtained from the report without the need for the file to be altered.

Here are some of the advantages and disadvantages of using a tool like a pivot table in your tables.

List of Advantages for Pivot Tables

1. They allow you to see how the data works.
Pivot tables are one of the only tools available to users that can provide deep insights into analytics data. Multiple reports can be generated with this tool off the same collected data within a single file.

2. It can work with SQL exports.
If the pivot table is being used on Microsoft Excel, then the tool is able to work with any SQL export.

3. The data is easier to segment.
Analytics that are gathered into a spreadsheet or database are easier to segment thanks to pivot tables.

4. You can create instant data.
Whether you program equations directly into the pivot table or you rely on formulas, instant data can be created with this tool.

List of Disadvantages for Pivot Tables

1. It can be a time-consuming venture.
For most programs, pivot tables can create the data needed to understand metrics, but the tool doesn’t include calculation options in many instances. That means the collected data must be manually calculated or equations must be manually inputted and that takes time.

2. There are no automatic updates.
Unless users run their reports every day with their pivot tables, they are flying blind when it comes to their metrics or analytics. Programs with pivot tables do not offer a dashboard of information that is easily summarized.

3. Older computers can struggle to present data.
If the spreadsheet or database is quite large, older technologies can struggle to produce the required data. Some users may even see their equipment crash because the requirements are too extensive for its processing power.

4. It takes time to learn them.
It might be fairly easy to learn how to use the pivot table, but then you’ve got to figure out how to present that data in a usable fashion. Most spreadsheets don’t focus on providing a good user experience when it comes to their pivot tables.

Pivot tables are an advantage for small datasets and a disadvantage for large spreadsheets. By taking these advantages and disadvantages into account, it becomes possible to easily organize spreadsheet-based data and then use it.