Plea bargaining is an agreement used in criminal cases to avoid a lengthy trial. Here, the prosecutor and the defendant work together to agree with each other, instead of taking the litigation to a jury. It often includes things like pleading to a lesser charge and pleading guilty in exchange for a lighter sentence. It is highly common in the US, where many cases are settled through plea bargains than by trials.
This type of legal agreement enables both parties to avoid a prolonged trial under court and enables the defendant to avoid the risk of a guilty verdict at court, which can lead to a more severe sentence. Plea bargaining has been carried out as an intentional agreement that leaves the defendant and the prosecutor better off, in which the former have various procedural and substantive rights. However, if the defendant pleads accountable, he is trading his rights to a prosecutor in return for concessions that are highly respected than surrendered rights. Withal, plea bargaining has become a hot topic in debates whether it is good for the society or not. To get a good idea on this subject, let us take a look at its advantages and disadvantages.
List of Advantages of Plea Bargaining
1. It helps deal with case loads.
In plea bargaining, the state and the court are aided in dealing with case loads. Also, the process decreases the prosecutors’ work load by letting them prepare for more serious cases by leaving effortless and petty charges in order to settle through.
2. It makes trial scheduling uncongested.
For the judge, the key benefit of accepting a plea bargain agreement is that he can alleviate the need to schedule and hold the trial on a docket that is already overcrowded. Judges are also aware of overcrowding in jails, so they might be receptive to process out offenders who are unlikely to do much jail time anyway. This means cases will be closed much quicker, which is good for the society as the method de-clogs court systems for more serious cases.
3. It hastens the process of trials.
Plea bargains are a significant factor in restructuring offenders by letting them agree to the blame for their trial and by letting them voluntarily submit before the law—without having expensive and time-consuming trials.
4. It eliminates a case’s uncertainty.
From the criminal defense’s perspective, the most useful benefit of this type of agreement is its ability to remove the uncertainty of a trial. It helps defendants with making sure they will not receive more serious charges for the criminal acts filed against them.
5. It brings great possibility to find the accused guilty.
When it does happen that the prosecution is feeble or that the court wants proper witnesses or evidence, and the outcome is likely acquittal, it is possible that the prosecuting party will still find the accused guilty.
6. It prevents a case from getting worse.
When a charged individual takes a plea bargain, he will not have to go through trial. This means that some crimes, which may have been committed, and any damning evidence are not going to be discovered.
7. It does not allow maximum sentence.
One of the biggest reasons why many people opt for plea bargaining is the fact that they cannot receive maximum sentences for their crimes.
8. It may allow for aiding larger cases.
In a plea bargaining agreement, prosecutors will often roll other conditions for the defendants to testify against a co-defendant, which might help solve larger cases in a prosecution.
9. It lets the justice system breathe.
If all criminal cases should make it to a trial by jury, then our justice systems would not be able to sustain themselves. Courts will probably be backed up by months or even years.
List of Disadvantages of Plea Bargaining
1. It allows presentation of the accused with unconscionable pressure.
In a plea bargaining agreement, the prosecution can present the accused with unconscionable pressure. And even though the process is controlled, there is still a chance of it being coerced.
2. It can lead to poor case preparation and investigations.
Some judges and attorneys argue that plea bargaining has led to attorneys not taking the time to properly prepare their cases and poor police investigations. They believe that, rather than pursuing justice, the parties would rely on making a deal, where the details of what happened and their legal consequences will become less important.
3. It might be biased to the prosecution party.
Plea bargaining might allow prosecutors to take full advantage of accepting criminal acts in the weakest trials. The more beneficial will be a guilty claim for the prosecution is if the trial ends in acquittal.
4. It might charge innocent people guilty.
Even if you are innocent, but agreed to a guilty plea, you still have to pay a fine or be imprisoned for a crime you did not commit. Not only this, but you will also have a criminal record that cannot be erased.
5. It is unconstitutional.
It is argued that plea bargaining is unconstitutional, as it takes away the defense’s constitutional right to a trial by jury. If the defendant is pressured or coerced into such an agreement, then this argument may have a considerable weight. But if the defendant, at all times in the criminal case, retains his right to a trial by jury without pressure to make an agreement, then the court finds that this procedure remains constitutional.
6. It can make the justice system suffer.
Since both the defense and prosecution parties depend on their power to negotiate a deal, instead of winning a trial, the justice system might suffer.
If both parties agree on a plea bargain, then the agreement shall be stated clearly on the court record before a judge who will issue the sentence that is agreed upon. Plea bargaining can have benefits for defendants and for the society, whose interests are represented by the government prosecutor. However, it is always important that both the prosecution and defending parties carefully weigh their options before reaching an agreement through a plea bargain.
One of the forms of government is authoritarian. This type is often described as one that has a central government as well as limited political freedom. Unlike an autocratic government, an authoritarian government can have elections. It is also associated to what is known as “blind leadership theory” in that the people have to obey the laws enacted by an authoritarian government.
Just like any other form of government, authoritarian leadership has its pros and cons. It helps to have an idea of its benefits and drawbacks for better understanding.
List of Advantages of Authoritarian Government
1. No Monopoly in Businesses
With the government having central power, it can impose on the prices of commodities being sold by manufacturers to consumers. Since a central government dictates on what products and services are to be offered as well as the number of products to be manufactured or sold in the market, business owners will not be able to monopolize the industry.
2. Instills Discipline
One of the advantages of this form of government is that it imposes rules and laws on the people and this somehow make them become cautious of their actions and be obedient. As a result, this can instill discipline among the subordinates.
3. Faster Law-making Process
Supporters of an authoritarian government posit that with only a few people to come up with laws and decide whether bills are to be passed or not, decisions will be faster and the people can benefit from these laws as soon as possible.
4. Has Policy Goals
Advocates for an authoritarian government claim that this regime exists with policy goals that can result to change, say, eradicating corruption in government. This type of governance is effective in a country where the previous government was not able to solve problems like insurgency, unemployment and corruption.
List of Disadvantages of Authoritarian Government
1. Lesser Freedom
Critics of this form of government say that since the government is run by a leader who heads a central agency or a group of authorities, power will be enjoyed by a small group of people and the people will not have the freedom to voice their concerns and issues. There will be no freedom of speech as well as individual and political freedom.
2. Potential Abuse of Power
Opponents of authoritarian leadership in government argue that since decisions and control of the nation are under the discretion of a single power, there is a tendency for the leader to be greedy for power and eventually abuse this for self-gratification.
3. Possible Unrest of Citizens
People who are not in favor of having a small group of people with power and who dictate on the lives of the citizens are concerned that there will come a time when these people will be sick and tired of their limited freedom. When this happens, this can lead to protests by the people who can turn violent and this can affect not only the economy but also the lives of the majority.
4. Government over the People
In an authoritarian form of government, individualism is permitted so long as it serves the interest of the state. Also, the rights of the people are only acknowledged if these answer to the needs of the government.
An authoritarian government is somehow in the middle of totalitarianism or dictatorship and a democratic form of government. This is why despite its negative aspects there are also benefits people can enjoy.
Political parties play a vital role in a democracy. A country can only be considered democratic if its elections are proven to constitute a real competition between two or among several candidates who may be backed by political parties or are running independently.
Political parties are organized groups of people who share a set of similar political aims and opinions and aim to influence public policy by getting their candidates elected. The main functions of these parties are to present their candidates and electoral campaigns to the electorate. But they also perform many other tasks in a democratic country. For one, they serve as institutionalized mediators between society and the duly elected representatives who are responsible for deciding and implementing policies. To illustrate, legislators who are affiliated with a political party and meet with civil society representatives seek opinions from individuals or organizations in the process of formulating public policy. By doing so, they are allowing the demands of their members and supporters to be represented in a parliament and in the government.
In a democratic society, political parties perform key duties, including the following:
Seeking public policy priorities and civic needs and issues identified by their members and supporters.
Educating the people how the political and electoral system and general political values work.
Balancing contrasting demands and turning them into general policies.
Encouraging citizens to participate in political decisions and turning their opinions into policy options for all.
Acting as a mediator between the public and the government.
Choosing and training candidates who are worthy to be elected to public office.
Every political party has internal functions that are determined by external forces, such as political culture, electoral system and legal regulations. But internal processes such as the ideological foundations, party history, personality of leaders and staff members and internal political culture are more influential to a party’s internal functions.
In the United States, there is what they call the two-party system. This means that there are two major parties that dominate the elections and the government. Although this nature of political system has its benefits in promoting good for all people, there are those who criticized it for its disadvantages.
To be able to determine whether having two political parties is actually beneficial to a country or not, it is important to know the advantages and disadvantages of having them.
List of Advantages of Political Parties
1. Political parties are able to present political information to the voting population in a manner that is readily understandable.
By doing so, there is order in the country through the representation of broad political philosophy of the group. As a result, voters become aware of every party’s stance on certain issues. A good example would be the 2012 Presidential Election between Republican Mitt Romney and Democrat Barack Obama. Each candidate represented major issues of their respective parties to the public.
2. Political parties provide balance through the accommodation of various interests and opinions.
Both political parties are organized groups with differing political views, which make it important for political parties to make decisions that will favor not only few but also all interests and opinions to keep the loyalty of their supporters.
3. Political parties prevent unexpected shifts in political trends that threaten stability in the government.
The US’ two-party system helps promote stability in the government because there will only be two parties sharing power, which can dissolve or change coalitions immediately. Now, if voters disagree on one political issue, they would generally understand that the candidates represent bigger issues that need more attention. This discourages voters from giving up their support for their party. Additionally, elected officials will have time to focus on long-term policies that benefit the public.
4. Political parties encourage political participation.
As a democratic nation, America allows its citizens to freely express their opinions and to support the political party that shares their interest and opinion. Unlike China, the US government encourages the public to participate and cast their votes at the polls. Hence, the public can contribute in making significant changes that will benefit everyone.
List of Disadvantages of Political Parties
1. Political parties might have a selfish propaganda that could hurt national interest.
When political parties carry vested interests and vicious propagandas that benefit only a few and are against other parties, it damages the country’s political environment. And when a certain group cares more for its members rather than the entire country, it does not only harm the political atmosphere, but also disturbs the nation’s peace and order.
2. Political parties could create factionalism.
A country with a party system could render political life artificial. It could create animosity between parties, encourage jealousy and develop occasional riots and insurrection. As a result, the public is forced to form factions because they could not agree on certain levels.
3. Political parties could ruin individuality.
There may be parties that expect or force the people support and share their views blindly. They might not allow its own people to criticize their shortcomings. In short, the people may not be allowed to form their individual opinions on certain issues because they are expected to follow what their party is telling them.
4. Political parties could encourage corruption.
There will be parties that distribute money to the electorate to secure votes for their candidates. Aside from that, their candidates may be making promises only to persuade the voting population into electing them. But once they are elected into office, they might never deliver to their promises. They might also place those who supported them in higher positions in exchange for their votes.
5. Political parties could deprive the country of talented individuals who can contribute to its success.
This is because people from the opposition parties are most likely excluded from participating in the government for the betterment of the entire nation.
When managed properly, political parties can help encourage the people into participating during elections. This ensures that the government officials appointed into different public offices will serve the majority, not only a few.
Genetically modified (GM) foods are organisms that have had new genes added to themselves from other organisms. Being around since 1994, they are produced in a way that is very similar to genetic engineering. The technique used in this type of crop management has been introduced to ensure farmers and merchants are able to improve crop or food quality in a more efficient way. Some people arrogate that this technology will help those in the agricultural industry decrease the amount of wasted crops and foods. But while there are many benefits of genetically modified foods, there are also potential drawbacks that are present. Here are their advantages and disadvantages:
List of Advantages of Genetically Modified Foods
1. Insect Resistance
Some GMO foods have been modified to make them more resistant to insects and other pests. A report from the University of California in San Diego states that toxic bacteria (yet safe for human use) can be added to crops to make them repel insects. This means the amount of pesticide chemicals used on the plants are reduced, so their exposure to dangerous pesticides are also reduced.
2. Stronger Crops
Another benefit that GM technology is believed to bring about is that crops can be engineered to withstand weather extremes and fluctuations, which means that there will be good quality and sufficient yields even under a poor or severe weather condition. As populations across the world grow and more lands are being utilized for housing instead of food production, farmers are prompted to grow crops in locations that are originally not suitable for plant cultivation, and culturing plants that can withstand high salt content in soil and groundwater, not to mention long periods of drought, will help them grow healthy crops. Also, animals and plants that have been genetically modified can become more resistant to unexpected disease problems. We can just think of the technology as a vaccine for the species, except that it is encoded into their genes, rather than being shot into their immune system.
3. Larger Production
It has been easier to raise crops that are classified as genetically modified because all of their examples have the stronger ability to resist pests. This attribute helps farmers with producing greater amounts of crops or foods.
4. Environmental Protection
According to an Oklahoma State University report, the increase of GM animals and crops often requires less time, tools and chemicals, and may help with reducing greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion and environmental pollution. This means the general health and beauty of the environment that surrounds farms will be improved, contributing to the preservation of better water and air quality, which can also indirectly benefit every person’s well-being.
5. Extensive Protection for Crops
GM foods were created with the use of genetic engineering—a technology that was designed to make sure crops will never be damaged in a fast rate. The method also allows farmers and merchants to preserve the good quality of foods more efficiently by using special substances.
6. More Nutritious Foods
According to the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, some GM foods have been engineered to become more nutritious in terms of vitamin or mineral content. This not only helps people get the nutrients they need, but also plays a significant role in fighting against malnutrition in third-world countries. In fact, the United Nations recommends that rice that is enhanced with vitamin A can help with reducing deficiencies of such nutrient around the world.
7. Decreased Use of Pesticides
It has been proven that genetically modified crops do not need pesticides to become stronger against various types of insects or pests that may destroy them.
8. More Income
With genetic engineering, farmers will have more income, which they could spend on important things, such as the education of their children for example.
9. Less Deforestation
To sufficiently feed the growing population of the world, deforestation is needed. But with genetically modified animals and crops, the use of this method will be minimized. This would decrease carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which would, in turn, slow global warming.
10. Decrease in Global Warming
As more plants and crops can be grown and at more areas, including those that were previously unsuitable for farming, oxygen in the environment is increased, decreasing the proportion of carbon dioxide and, in turn, reducing global warming. In fact, British economists noted in a study that genetically modified crops have made significant contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by over 10 million tons, which is equivalent to removing 5 million cars from the road each year. This means that people would not have to give up their vehicles.
11. Decrease in Food Prices
Due to higher yield and lower costs, food prices would go down. As people in poorer countries spend over half of their income on food alone, this means automatic reduction of poverty.
12. New Products
New kinds of crops are being developed to be grown at extreme climates, such as those present in dry or freezing environments. As an example, scientists have developed a new type of tomato that grows in salty soil. Another good discovery in genetic engineering of plants is the exclusion of the gene responsible for caffeine in coffee beans, creating decaffeinated coffee beans, which can then be grown naturally.
List of Disadvantages of Genetically Modified Foods
1. Allergic Reactions
According to research by the Brown University, resent genetically modified foods can pose significant allergy risks to people. It states that genetic modification often adds or mixes proteins that were not indigenous to the original animal or plant, which might cause new allergic reactions in our body. In some cases, proteins from organisms that you are allergic to might be added to organisms that you were not originally allergic to. This means your range of food choices will be lessened.
2. Not 100% Environmentally Friendly
Though it is claimed by many experts that genetically modified foods are safe for the environment, they actually still contain several kinds of substances that are not yet proven to be such. And what’s worse? These substances are remained hidden to the public.
3. Lower Level of Biodiversity
One big potential drawback of this technology is that some organisms in the ecosystem could be harmed, which in turn could lead to a lower level of biodiversity. When we remove a certain pest that is harmful to crops, we could also be removing a food source for a certain species. In addition, genetically modified crops could prove toxic to some organisms, which can lead to their reduced numbers or even extinction.
4. Decreased Antibiotic Efficacy
According to the Iowa State University, some genetically modified foods have antibiotic features that are built into them, making them resistant or immune to viruses or diseases or viruses. And when we eat them, these antibiotic markers will persist in our body and will render actual antibiotic medications less effective. The university also warns that ingestion of these foods and regular exposure to antibiotics may contribute to the reduced effectiveness of antibiotic drugs, as noticed in hospitals across the planet.
5. Unusual Taste
Genetically modified foods are observed to have unnatural tastes compared with the ordinary foods that are sold on the market. This could be the result of the substances that were added to their composition.
6. Not Totally Safe to Eat
It is proven by scientific studies that GMO foods contain substances that may cause diseases and even death to several kinds of species in this world, including us humans. For instance, mice and butterflies cannot survive with these foods.
Cross-pollination can cover quite large distances, where new genes can be included in the offspring of organic, traditional plants or crops that are miles away. This can result in difficulty in distinguishing which crop fields are organic and which are not, posing a problem to the task of properly labeling non-GMO food products.
8. Gene Spilling
It is unclear what effects, if there are any, the genetic pollution resulting from inadequate sequestering of genetically modified crop populations would have on the wild varieties surrounding them. However, it is stressed that releasing pollen from genetically altered plants into the wild through the insects and the wind could have dramatic effects on the ecosystem, though there is yet long-term research to be done to gauge such impact.
9. Gene Transfer
Relevant to the previous disadvantage, a constant risk of genetically modified foods is that an organism’s modified genes may escape into the wild. Experts warn that genes from commercial crops that are resistant to herbicides may cross into the wild weed population, thus creating super-weeds that have become impossible to kill. For genetically enhanced vegetation and animals, they may become super-organisms that can out-compete natural plants and animals, driving them into extinction.
GMO foods can cause a lot of issues in the merchants’ daily life. How? These products might encourage authorities to implement higher tariffs to merchants, who would be selling them.
Some countries may use genetic engineering of foods as a very powerful weapon against their enemies. It is important to note that some scientists have discovered that these products can kill a lot of individuals in the world by using harmful diseases.
12. Widening Gap of Corporate Sizes
This disadvantage can possibly happen between food-producing giants and their smaller counterparts, causing a consolidation in the market. There would be fewer competitors, which could increase the risk of oligopolies and food price increases. Moreover, larger companies might have more political power and might be able to influence safety and health standards.
13. New Diseases
As previously mentioned, genetically modified foods can create new diseases. Considering that they are modified using viruses and bacteria, there is a fear that this will certainly happen. This threat to human health is a worrisome aspect that has received a great deal of debate.
14. Food Supply at Risk
GMO seeds are patented products and, in order to purchase them, customers have to sign certain agreements for use with the supplier or creator. As the reliance on these seeds expands around the world, concerns about food supply and safety also continue to arise. Furthermore, these seeds structurally identical, and if a problem affects one of them, a major crop failure can occur.
15. Economic Concerns
Bringing a genetically modified food to market can be a costly and lengthy process, and of course, agricultural bio-technology companies want to ensure a profitable ROI. So, many new plant genetic engineering technologies and products have been patented, and patent infringement is a big concern within the agribusiness. Also, consumer advocates are worried that this will raise seed prices to very high levels that third-world countries and small farmers cannot afford them, thus widening the gap between the rich and the poor.
One way fight against possible patent infringement is introducing a “suicide gene” into GM animals and plants, which would be viable for only a single growing season and would produce sterile seeds that do not germinate, prompting farmers to buy a fresh supply of seeds every year. However, this would be financially disastrous for them, especially those in developing countries, who cannot afford to do this and traditionally set aside a portion of their harvest to plant in the next growing season.
Genetically modified foods can potentially solve many hunger and malnutrition problems in the world, as well as help protect and preserve the environment by increasing yields and reducing reliance upon chemical pesticides and herbicides. However, it is important to proceed with caution to avoid unfavorable consequences for the surroundings and our health, considering that genetic engineering technology is very powerful.
Remember that there are really potential benefits and risks to these products, which you will learn further as you dig deeper into this subject. You can also read a brief fact sheet to familiarize yourself more with their purported benefits and problems. By doing so, you will be well-informed about these foods and the way they can affect your life.
One of the effective methods of producing power is through the use of streaming or falling water. This can be harnessed through the construction of dams across rivers. This process is referred to as hydroelectricity. The principle will utilize the constant flow of water in order to move the turbines, which enable the use of the flowing water’s kinetic energy. As a result, the magnets in the generator will rotate and produce electricity. The water that gets out of the turbine will be returned to the stream found under the dam.
Despite the fact that this technology is not capable of emitting greenhouse gases, there are issues causing it to be on the headlines. Many are concerned that blocking the rivers by building huge dams can have severe social and environmental impact. Some of the issues include blocking of passage for migratory fish, changing of the river’s normal flow, and increasing possibility of earthquakes and displacement of communities within the area.
Many companies are now looking at the potential to utilize water resources to power up their facilities. Consequently, this option has been criticized by local communities as it can disrupt the normal ecosystem. Hence, when considering hydroelectricity, it is important to look at the positive and negative effects that it entails. To begin with, here are a few points to ponder from the list of pros and cons of hydroelectricity as stated below.
List of Pros of Hydroelectricity
1. It is Renewable.
Since this method uses water from the earth to produce electricity, the resource is renewable. Naturally, water that evaporates from the surface of the earth will form clouds and eventually falls back to the earth formed as snow or rain. This means that it will never have to run out of supply and it will not become scarce.
2. Source of Clean Energy.
Basically, hydroelectric power is a clean and green alternative source of energy. In fact, the creation of hydroelectricity will not cause any contamination. Moreover, it will not produce any greenhouse gases or toxins that will pollute the environment.
3. It is Stable and Reliable.
This type of energy source is considered dependable as there are no issues so far as electric power generation is concerned. Many countries with huge hydropower potential utilize hydroelectricity as their main energy source.
4. Requires Low Operating Cost.
The good thing about hydroelectricity when it comes to cost is that it requires low maintenance and operating cost. It also require minimal replacements due to the fewer parts that are present in it. More so, the dams built in these locations have been designed for long-term use. Hence, these facilities will be capable of providing hydroelectric power for a long period of time.
5. Matches Current Demand.
Altering the water streams, creating dams, and getting power can be easier said than done. However, it is not very hard to get going. Once the establishment is in place, it will be easier to deflect the flow of water from one place to another. For instance, if the demand for water is low in a particular area, it will be lowered, redirected and stored until the need arises.
List of Cons of Hydroelectricity
1. Causes Environmental Damage.
Due to the interruptions in the natural flow of water, there are many identified results that can affect the environment. Consequently, it can influence the movement of fish as they move or migrate. This is because fish environments can be influenced with a number of factors, including safe spots, water levels, and water speed. When one of these factors will be altered, there can be a possible interruption in the ecosystem for sure.
2. Cost of Building is Expensive.
Undoubtedly, power plants are very expensive to create, regardless of the type of building. Although hydroelectric power plants are not that complicated to build, it may still require a huge amount of money to begin with. The only advantage is that it will not require specialists to maintain or support personnel that need to be paid large sums of money. So perhaps it will make a good investment to think it can provide an essential source of energy.
3. May Cause Droughts.
A great possibility that happens when building hydroelectric power plants is the occurrence of local droughts. The cost of energy and power are identified depending on the accessibility of water. This can be greatly influenced by a dry spell, causing people not to acquire the power they need.
4. Floods in Lower Areas.
Local populations in low lying locations can become victims of floods due to possible strong water currents that might be released from the dam. More so, it can affect the livelihood of people living in these areas. As a result, more people are then forced to move out to pursue the construction of the dams needed for generating hydroelectricity.
5. Shortage of Water Supply.
Huge dams are built across rivers in countries rich with potential hydroelectric power source. This can cause the interruption of the natural flow of water from one direction to another. When one location does not require too much water supply, it will be redirected to another place so that those looking to build dams in the area can get the much needed water. However, it can cause conflict in the long run when there is scarcity of water supply in that particular area and the water redirected to the dams must be stopped.
Building dams in certain locations with potential for hydroelectric power can pose a lot of challenges. Although hydroelectric power plants can be good alternative sources of energy for everybody, there are issues that can hinder their creation. For this reason, it is essential to equate the pros and cons of hydroelectricity when planning to build one. Of course, it can’t be denied that there should always be a gamble when trying to start something new. But perhaps local statistics must be carefully analyzed first before trying to build a revolutionary structure in the community. At least it should comply with safety requirements and should not compromise the environment and the people living within it.
When it comes to schools, there are two types: mixed school and single-sex school. The former is also referred to as co-educational or mixed-sex school where students are both men and women while the latter only accepts students who are either all boys or all girls. This can also referred to as an exclusive school.
Coed schools offer numerous benefits to students but there are also drawbacks that result from attending schools or educational institutions with male and female enrolled students. Let us take a look at the opposite sides of co-educational schools.
List of Advantages of Coed Schools
1. Offers School Diversity
One of the good things about enrolling students, especially kids in mixed-gender schools is the diversity that this decision offers students. If young boys and girls are given exposed to diversity in an early age, they will find it easier to adapt in different environments when they grow up. The diversity this set-up offers is significant in teaching other forms of diversity such as cultural and social.
2. Teaches Equality
With both male and female students attending classes together and participating in class activities, these students will be able to learn about equality between men and women. As opposed to single-sex schools, coed schools treat students equally with no preference to sex, thus, when assignments are given, there are no special treatments and students are graded and evaluated on their performance and not on gender.
3. Promotes Socialization
Some people who were not educated in coed schools often find it hard to socialize with the opposite sex since they are not used to interacting and talking to members of the opposite sex. Conversely, students enrolled in mixed classrooms experience being with members of the opposite sex and become familiar with existing with them. The familiarity will teach them about co-existence and at the same time prepare them when they get out of school where they will have to deal with different kinds of people.
4. Prepares Students for the Real World
Another advantage of co-educational schools is that students are exposed to a normal environment in the sense that society is composed of both men and women. If they are taught and motivated to interact with both sexes, they can use this skill when they graduate in college and be in the real world where men and women co-exist, especially at work.
5. Improves Communication Skills
If a student is studying in a school or university with members of the opposite sex, he or she will be exposed to men and women as well as communicate with them. Since both genders have different ways of expressing themselves, studying in coed schools can help an individual with communication skills.
6. Challenges Sexism
A school with mixed students offer an environment that gives men and women the chance to express themselves and share their views which will teach boys and girls about equality when it comes to sexes. This is because in this educational environment, students are allowed to discuss and debate. As a result, they will be able to explore each other’s perspectives and their differences when it comes to views. This will make it easier for them to agree to disagree.
List of Disadvantages of Coed Schools
1. Can Result to Distraction
One of the downsides of mixed schools where there are both boys and girls is that students might not be able to concentrate with their studies. This is more possible to happen with students who are in high school and college because these are the levels where attraction among students can happen. If a boy has an infatuation on a girl or they will be in a relationship and something goes wrong, this can affect the studies of these students. Studies show that students in single sex schools are able to perform better in academics as opposed to coed students because they are not conscious about themselves and are less distracted.
2. Boys Differ from Girls
Boys are said to be better than girls when it comes to Math while females are better in communications skills and Language than males. Having said that, problems may arise when it comes to performance of students in the classroom. Say, the subject is Mathematics and the boys perform better than girls. The teacher might need to come up with techniques to teach the lesson and this can eat up much of the time intended for more lessons. Moreover, participation in class will not be balanced since one gender might be performing well than the other. This can also affect the atmosphere and the flow of lessons in the classroom.
3. Academic Performance
Some educators who teach in single-sex schools that most students perform better academically in all-boys or all-girls schools than in coed educational institutions. This is because the co-existence of boys and girls in the classroom can lead to shyness or intimidation of some students. When these happen, students who will be intimated or embarrassed to participate in class will end up not performing well, academically.
4. Early Relationships
Students spend most of their time in school and in a coed school, this means boys and girls have more time to be together and interact with one another. One disadvantage is that this can also lead to engaging in relationships and eventually sexual activities. If these kids are still immature and careless, these actions can result to early pregnancy and early marriages.
5. Less Confidence
In a classroom setting where students are all boys or all girls, students are more confident to speak up and perform in class because they are not conscious of what their classmates, who are members of the opposite sex, will think of them. According to a study, girls are less confident in coed schools compared to the confidence shown by female students in exclusive schools for girls. This is because they tend to be shy around their male counterparts especially in participating in class or during recitations. This is more evident in some subjects like Math, Science and Technology.
6. Attention Given to Students
In a coed setting, boys are considered to be independent and able to do things for themselves while most girls, with the exception of some, are seen as fragile. This is a common way of thinking which is not advantageous all the time. With this attitude, girls tend to get more attention and get more assistance when they need help as opposed to boys who are expected to figure things on their own, most of the time.
There are both advantages and disadvantages in coed schools and parents should take these into consideration when deciding on what school to enroll their children at. This is because the school environment has a great impact on the students.
Tidal energy pertains to a form of power that particularly transforms the efficiency of the tides to beneficial forms of dynamism. Though it is not widely used, it serves as a significant investment when it comes to electricity generation.
Currently, tidal energy is still in the early development stages, not being able to compete with fossil fuels. However, the focus on renewable energy sources and the demand for clean energy are contributing to a rapid development of methodologies to harness this type of energy source. Tidal energy is already offering many advantages, but put in mind that it is also linked to some disadvantages. In order to completely understand its significance and effects, it would help to gain a clearer understanding of these opposing aspects.
List of Advantages of Tidal Energy
1. It is renewable.
Tidal energy’s source is a result of the effects of the sun and moon’s gravitational fields, combined with our planet’s rotation around its axis, which result in low and high tides. With this in mind, the power source of tidal energy is potentially renewable, whether we are talking about tidal barrages, stream generators or the more recent technology, dynamic tidal power (DTP). Compared to nuclear reserves and fossil fuels, the sun and moon’s gravitational fields, as well as the Earth’s rotation around its axis, will not cease to exist any time soon.
2. It is green.
Aside from being renewable, tidal energy is also an environmentally friendly energy source because it does not take up a lot of space and does not emit any greenhouse gases. However, there are already some examples of tidal power plants and their effects on the environment. Important studies and assessments are being conducted on these things.
3. It is predictable.
Sea currents are highly predictable, developing with well-known cycles, which makes it easier to construct tidal energy systems with the correct dimensions, since the kind of power the equipment will be exposed to is already known. This is why both the equipment’s installed capacity and physical size have entirely other limitations, though tidal turbines and stream generators that are being used are very similar to wind turbines.
4. It is effective at low speeds.
Water is a thousand more dense than air, which makes it possible to produce electricity at low speeds. Based on calculations, power can be generated even at 1 minute per second, which is equivalent to a little over 3 feet per second.
5. It has a long lifespan.
So far, there is no reason to believe that tidal energy plants are not long lived. This means an ultimate reduction of the money spent on selling the electricity, making this energy source a very cost-competitive one. As an example, the La Rance tidal barrage power plant was constructed in 1966 and is still generating large amounts of electricity up to this day.
6. It reduces foreign importation of fuel.
By harnessing tidal energy on a large scale, we can help reduce foreign fuels importation and enhance energy security, as people would no longer have to rely much on foreign fuel import to satisfy the growing energy demand.
7. It serves as coastal protection.
Small dams and barrages, which are used to harness tidal energy, could protect ship ports and coastal areas from the dangerous tides during storms and bad weather conditions.
List of Disadvantages of Tidal Energy
1. It still has some environmental effects.
As previously mentioned, tidal power plants are suspected to have some environmental effects, but are yet to be determined. As we know it, these facilities generate electricity with the use of tidal barrages that rely on ocean level manipulation, thus potentially having the same environmental effects as hydroelectric dams. Also, the turbine frames may potentially disrupt the natural movement of marine animals, and the construction of the whole plant may also disturb migration of fish. Nevertheless, technological solutions are now being developed to resolve these issues.
2. It is an intermittent energy source.
Tidal energy is considered as an intermittent source of energy, as it can only provide electricity when the tide surges, which happen about approximately 10 hours per day on average. This means that tidal energy can only be considered as reliable when accompanied with effective energy storage solutions.
3. It should be close to land.
Tidal energy facilities need to be constructed close to land, which is also the place where technological solutions that come with them are being worked on. It is hoped that in a few years we will be able to use weaker tidal currents at locations further out to sea. In addition to this disadvantage, the areas where this energy is produced are far away from the exact locations where it is consumed or needed.
4. It is expensive.
We should know that the method of generating tidal energy is relatively a new technology. It is projected that it will be commercially profitable by 2020 in larger scales with better technology. Also, the plants that harness this type of energy are linked to higher upfront costs that are required for construction. Thus, tidal energy displays a lack of cost-effectiveness and efficiency in the world’s energy market.
5. It is not cost-effective.
The tidal energy technology is not that cost-effective, as more technological advancements and innovations are still needed to make power commercially viable.
6. It is still considered a new technology.
Still a more theoretic source of power, tidal energy is limited in real life to just a few prototype projects because the technology has just begun to develop and needs plenty of research and huge funds before it reaches the commercial status.
7. It requires long gestation time.
The time and cost overruns can be huge for tidal power plants, which led to some of them being cancelled, such as UK’s Severn Barrage. In fact, some tidal power stations, like the one being planned in Russia, will never be realized because of very long gestation time.
By weighing down the advantages and disadvantages of tidal energy listed above, you can gain a clearer realization on its over-all impact. On your end, do you think that this type of power source is more helpful to society, or not?
When court rulings are based upon what is suspected to be purely personal reasoning or political, judicial activism is used. Basically, this means that judges intertwine their own personal feelings into a sentence or conviction, instead of abiding by the existing laws. This personal interpretation of laws has been causing quite a bit of heated debate in the US, especially with many cases have been popping up. There were times when this methodology was hoped for from the courts, such as in the case of the implementation of the Affordable Care Act and same sex marriage. On the other hand, it is discouraged as it interferes with the other government branches.
Somehow, every judicial case has a foundation of activism within it, so its pros and cons must always be weighed to determine if the appropriate course of action is being carried out. Let us take a look at some facts from both sides of the coin to reach a well-informed decision on this subject.
List of Pros of Judicial Activism
1. It provides a system of checks and balances to the other government branches.
Considering that politics commonly plays a role in almost all other government branches, it would make sense that it would do the same in the judicial system too. However, instead of being liberal or conservative, labels like “progressive interpretation” or “literalist” are being used. Judicial politics is formed by how judges view the law and how it should be interpreted.
2. It supplies helpful insight.
Take note that there is a lot of sensitive issues that need to be handled with a certain amount of care that many laws do not allow. Thus, judicial activism is employed to allow a judge to use his personal judgment in cases where the law fails.
3. It gives judges a personal voice to fight unjust issues.
Through judicial activism, judges can use their own personal feelings to strike down laws that they would feel are unjust. Whether it is an executive order, an immigration issue or a criminal proceeding, judges would have a good vantage point in deciding a certain case’s outcome.
4. It would allow people to vote judges off the bench.
Many local judges are elected to the bench, which means that if they rule in a way that people disagree consistently, they can be voted off on the next cycle. However, some judges might serve up to 15 years from a single election, so this benefit might have some limitations to it.
5. It places trust in judges.
Judges’ oath of bringing justice to the country does not change with judicial activism, which allows them to do what they see fit within reasonable limits. The reason why this is a good thing is that it shows the instilled trust placed in the justice system and its judgments.
6. It has its own system of checks and balances.
Even if a judge decided and ruled that certain law is unjust, it can still be actually overruled with an appeal to another court, even to the Supreme Court. In some cases, a state affair would start before a local judge and be appealed to the Supreme Court. It would also transition into a federal case, so it would be heard multiple times before a final resolution.
List of Cons of Judicial Activism
1. It sees the letter of the law and politics as separate issues.
In judicial activism, there is a political understanding of the law, while there is also a direct interpretation of it. Though these aspects often come together, they can also be very far apart. In the US, a judge can literally override any law simply because they feel like it, and he can even set aside a jury’s verdict under certain circumstances.
2. It does not apply any law.
When this type of judicial system is employed, it would seem that the laws do not apply, where judges can override any law that exists, which technically means there are no laws before their eyes.
3. Its rulings would eventually become final.
Judicial activism becomes a more profound subject for those who serve on the Supreme Court, as their rulings generally stand. With the power to have the final say on matters, their judicial opinions would also become standards for ruling on other cases. For example, when parts of the Defense of Marriage Act were struck down, many other judges also ruled that same sex marriage is permitted. Whether you feel these actions are good or bad, it occurred due to activism.
4. It might be influenced by personal affairs.
When judicial activism is exercised, it is often done for solely personal and selfish reasons, like one that might be political or one where a judge has received compensation for his judgment. Most likely, laws will be overruled when there is personal objection to them involved. For example, a fundamental Christian judge might rule that protest restriction laws against abortion clinics are constitutional, or a proponent judge could strike down a ban on abortion when passed. Often times, judicial activism has become predictable simply because people already know about the one who is ruling the case.
5. It appoints, rather than elects, judges.
Under judicial activism, many ruling judges are not elected, but rather appointed by government officials, which means that people in a region would not have any say as to how they want local judges to rule. In some cases, this system is taxation without representation, as money from taxpayers would go to support the judges’ salaries, while ruling based upon personal desires rather than what the local citizens want to see.
The pros and cons listed above show that when judicial activism is properly implemented, it can check and balance existing laws properly. However, it can also be easily abused based solely on a judge’s personal preferences. So, do its benefits outweigh its risks? With the information provided in this article, we can decide whether or not we would put our trust in judicial activism.
A reciprocating pump is a positive-displacement pump. The design allows for liquid or gas to be trapped in a chamber, which is then expelled when a piston within the chamber pushes the liquid or gas outward. A traditional windmill is a classic example of a reciprocating pump design.
Here are the pros and cons of a reciprocating pump to consider.
List of the Pros of a Reciprocating Pump
1. It creates high pressures from low-flow situations.
A reciprocating pump draws fluid or gas into its chamber through a small opening. It then releases that fluid or gas when the liquid or gas is compressed by a piston. That creates a high-pressure released from a low-flow situation.
2. It is a proven technology.
Reciprocating pumps are one of the oldest designs still being used. Pumps of this type have been designed to perform with up to 3,000 horsepower.
3. It is a durable technology.
Reciprocating pumps work with highly corrosive or abrasive materials. Because a pump can be made with everything from ceramics to carbide, this technology is used in applications that range from air transfers to pumping cement.
4. It is an efficient technology.
A well-designed reciprocating pump often operates above 90% efficiency, even though it is one of the most affordable options of its type.
List of the Cons of a Reciprocating Pump
1. It has a short half-life.
Reciprocating pumps require a lot of maintenance to continue functioning properly. Most pumps of this type require at least one full rebuild over 15 years of use, with careful maintenance occurring at all times to make it last that long. Rebuilds are not costly, though they can be time-intensive.
2. It creates pulsations.
The piston movement which moves liquids or gas creates a pulsation within the inlet and outlet of the pump. Even if there are multiple pump chambers incorporated into the design of the pump, these pulsations cannot be completely eliminated. If the pulsations are severe, damage to surrounding systems may occur.
3. It may damage itself.
The movement of the pistons can be violent enough, in normal operations, to cause the pump to damage itself over time. To counter this issue, most reciprocating pumps require a damper of some type.
These reciprocating pump pros and cons show that this proven technology is effective and affordable. It also requires a lot of attention to be successful.
Quartz countertops are manufactured in two different ways. Some are created through the quarried slabs of stone. Homeowners have access to engineered quartz countertops as well, which mixes 95% ground natural quartz with polymer resin.
Here are the pros and cons of quartz countertops to consider.
List of the Pros of Quartz Countertops
1. It is a proven countertop option.
Quartz countertops have been one of the most popular options in Europe for more than a decade. In the United States, quartz is still somewhat uncommon. Since this surface combines the qualities of stone and laminate into one affordable countertop, it offers a versatile option for almost any kitchen.
2. Multiple color options are available.
Whether the quartz is a quarried slab or an engineered solution, virtually any color is an option with a quartz countertop. That makes it a reasonable investment for new construction or for those who are upgrading or remodeling their kitchen.
3. It is a low-maintenance solution.
Quartz countertops are almost indestructible. The durability is so good that it is one of the few countertop options that may come with a warranty. Because it isn’t porous, there are fewer sanitary concerns with this countertop option as well.
4. They resist staining and corrosion.
Because of the durability of the surface, the need to reseal the countertop is no longer required. Quartz countertops naturally resist liquids, oils, and corrosion on their own.
List of the Cons of Quartz Countertops
1. Heat easily damages quartz countertops.
Excessive heat will quickly damage a quartz countertop. Even momentarily setting a hot pan on the countertop is enough to damage it. Heating pads or trivets are a must-have item when these countertops are installed.
2. They can be very expensive.
Quartz countertops may cost upwards of $100 per square foot. That means before fitting and installation costs, a brand-new quartz countertop of 30 square feet may be more than $3,000.
3. Sink options are limited.
Integrated sinks are not incorporated into a quartz countertop. You must use a flush-mount, drop-in, or under-mount sink with this countertop. Using the wrong type of sink can cause the countertop to crack, which may force a full replacement.
These quartz countertop pros and cons show why it is a popular option, but may not be right for every home. It can be a low-maintenance solution, but it can also be difficult to fit or modify.