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Opposing Viewpoints

Precedent is the basis of common law and therefore the American judicial system. In theory, the proper application of past decisions should provide clarity and stability to court decisions. However, there are also many objections to the strict use of judicial precedent and potential disadvantages to reliance on past decisions over other factors.

The Advantages of Judicial Precedent

1. Continuity
Precedent means following the example or ruling set by a court when judging a similar case. In theory this should provide a solid foundation for judges to base a future ruling off, provided the line of reasoning and conclusions reached follow the established precedent.

2. Clarity
The application of well known precedents also makes it easy for other actors in society to understand and conform to the law. If judicial rulings and punishments follow an established rule, it cuts down on the appearance of favoritism or unfair persecution under the law that can arise as a result of different outcomes to similar cases.

3. Stability
Jurisdictions that apply common law are some of the oldest continuously operating judicial systems in existence. This is in no small part a result of the continued application of precedent over time. If citizens or actors in a society are clear about what the rules are and outcomes when they are violated, it has been shown to support better governance and economic performance.

The Disadvantages of Judicial Precedent

1. Constrains Judicial Decisions
One of the primary responsibilities of a judge is to use their discretion when applying the law. By forcing independent judges to follow a strict precent, it forces them in some cases to apply a harsher or lesser penalty than they otherwise feel is deserved. While many will point to this lack of ambiguity as an advantage, the constraint it places on judges when interpreting the law can also be a disadvantage at times.

2. Enshrines Bad Decisions
The appeals process exists because the system allows for the possibility that judges and juries can err in their application of the law. A flawed decision can be reversed on appeal but when a decision automatically becomes precedent that can be followed in future cases, it can perpetuate bad law and potentially undermine the judicial system.

3. Inflexible
Some aspect of the law are immutable however others rules and regulations change over time. While judicial precedent does protect the enduring principles upon which the most important rulings are based, it can also limit the ability of the law to adapt to new developments in society.

There are numerous job enrichment advantages and disadvantages. Business owners can utilize this measure to increase the depth of an individual’s job, rather than the quantity of that person’s job. Job enrichment provides employees with the opportunity to try things. These things can include responsibilities that were not initially included in their job description.

As you can imagine, there are a variety of advantages and disadvantages to this concept. It is interesting to note that the advantages and disadvantages apply to not only the owners of the businesses. These things can also apply to the employees who make up the company.

List Of Advantages Of Job Enrichment

As a means for business owners to try their employees out on new things, job enrichment has a number of advantages. In terms of job enrichment pros, you can consider the following:

1. Employees can learn new skills.
Through trying new things, employees can eventually learn to develop new skills. An employee who is tasked with managing a new task will often have to complete additional, smaller tasks within the larger one. Without taking the employee too far out of their comfort zone, it can be possible to use job enrichment to utilize established skills in new and exciting ways. With the foundation of the skills they have, they will be in the best position possible to develop new skills through their new responsibilities. These new skills can then serve to provide the individual with benefits in other aspects of their work.

2. Employees can reduce boredom.
Over time, employees can get bored with doing the same old thing. This can lead to a decline in morale, which can then lead to a decline in motivation. In order to alleviate the boredom that can arise from individuals performing nothing beyond the particulars of their job description, the enrichment measure can provide them with the spark of being able to try something new.

3. Employees can receive recognition.
Through job enrichment, you can more accurately determine the strengths and weaknesses of your employees. If someone performs a task particularly well, it can lead to recognition in a variety of forms. It can even lead to promotions.

4. Employees can remain motivated.
When a business owner trusts their employees with new tasks that are complex and engaging, employee motivation can take a dramatic upswing. This is because the employees are going to feel validated and respected. When they feel validated and respected, they will become more efficient in the workplace.

Disadvantages Of Job Enrichment

While there are some clear advantages to job enrichment, there are also a number of disadvantages of job enrichment that you will want to keep in mind. In terms of the problematic elements to job enrichment that can emerge, consider the following:

1. Lack of training.
Giving employees greater depth of tasks can cause problems through their lack of experience and training. If these things are significant enough, the overall productivity of that employee can drop to a certain degree. This is why it is important to not remove an individual too far from their comfort zone.

2. Increasing the workload.
As you can imagine, job enrichment can lead to an increase in the workload of the individual. As a concept, job enrichment can annoy employees, or be greeted with minimal enthusiasm, simply because it implies an increase in their workload. Getting past that, you can still have problems. Some employees are adept at reorganizing their priorities, and creating a schedule that incorporates everything, while avoiding burnout. Employees who do not have those talents may find themselves struggling to keep up. Their workload can become chaotic, and their productivity can suffer to an exceptional degree. Frustration can mount, as well. Worse yet, if this problem proves to be widespread within a company, the results can be disastrous.

3. Non-participant conflicts.
Job enrichment is great if everyone can qualify. Unfortunately, some businesses may have employees who claim they are ready for new and exciting things, but haven’t shown any of the qualities to indicate that. Conflicts can emerge in the form of disgruntlement, bitterness towards management, and resentment towards the employees who did in fact qualify for job enrichment.

4. Performance can prove to be poor.
If the job enrichment experience goes well, then everyone is going to benefit. At the same time, if the experience does not go well for the employee, the consequences of poor performance can be varied. Poor training, disinterest, or a difficulty in understanding the tasks can all lead to poor performance. In terms of actual consequences, the employee can feel as though they are incompetent. Poor performance can also give the employee a feeling of being beaten down. It can also cause embarrassment for the employee, since failing to perform certain responsibilities can lead to that employee having the responsibilities removed. This can increase the potential for bitterness, resentment, and poor performance in other aspects of work.

When it comes to being an introvert, there are numerous advantages to consider. At the same time, there are a number of advantages that you will also want to keep in mind. The introvert is defined as one who is shy, and perhaps reticent, as well. While this sounds like a demeanor that would emphasize the disadvantages, the truth is far more complex than that. As you will quickly find, there are a variety of introvert advantages and disadvantages to keep in mind.

Advantages Of Being An Introvert

There are several potential advantages to being an introvert that many people may not actually realize:

1. Introverts choose their words carefully.
One of the biggest advantages of working with an introvert is that while they will not speak often, their words will have considerable weight when they do. This is because you can expect an introvert to choose their words carefully.

2. Focus.
Maintaining an introvert personality often means pulling great deals of focus on an unconscious level. Not surprisingly, this focus can prove to be useful in a variety of ways.

3. Volumes of information.
A significant amount of evidence strongly points to the fact that introverts process greater volumes of information that anyone else.

4. They are typically quiet.
Many introverts could be defined as the quiet type, which can have a number of advantages. This is particularly true, in terms of introverts being really good tenants for landlords who don’t want someone they might have to worry about.

Disadvantages Of Being An Introvert

Are there disadvantages to being an introvert? Absolutely. There are several that you are going to want to keep in mind:

1. Social customs.
While introverts generally do not set out to be rude, there are elements to the behavior that can rub people the wrong way. This is largely due to the fact that being an introvert often means eschewing certain social customs.

2. Bad first impression.
As mentioned before, there are elements to the behavior of an introvert that can certainly serve to rub someone the wrong way. This can be particularly true when introductions are made.

3. Verbal communication.
Some introverts find verbal communication to be extremely difficult. If they find themselves becoming stressed out, the difficulties with communication can become even more pronounced.

4. No networking.
Introverts are capable of networking. Some can even excel at it, despite their personalities. However, many introverts find networking to be difficult and stressful. Because of the potential stress, many people choose to just avoid it completely.

Injections are administered in different ways. The most common methods are intravenous, subcutaneous and intramuscular. Intravenous injections are administered directly into the veins, usually at the forearms or at the wrists. Subcutaneous injections are administered into the skin, just under the topmost layer into the fat. Intramuscular injections are administered into the muscles, usually at the deltoid, gluteus or thigh. All these three methods of administering injections have their share of advantages and disadvantages. Here are the intramuscular injections advantages and disadvantages.

List of Advantages of Intramuscular Injections

1. Simple and Accessible
The method is simple and very accessible. When injections cannot be administered by doctors or no one trained is around, it is difficult to administer intravenous or even the subcutaneous injections. Intramuscular injections are much easier to administer. Most people can easily access their thigh muscles. One can even access the deltoid or the gluteus muscle.

2. Unaided Administering
There are medical devices available that make administering intramuscular injections easier but one doesn’t have to use them. With some intravenous injections and subcutaneous injections, you would depend on some medical devices. You don’t need to find a vein or the exact depth of the fat inside the skin.

3. Imperative for Many
Intramuscular injections are necessary to administer some vaccines and many drugs including immunoglobulins. You cannot administer these as subcutaneous or intravenous injections. Intramuscular injections can supply a larger volume of the drug or fluid. The intake is much more since muscles have a larger capacity than the veins. Since the medicine is not directly getting into the bloodstream, there is a sustained release which can have a desired effect in certain cases. Not everyone or every condition benefits from an instant release of a medicine into the bloodstream.

List of Disadvantages of Intramuscular Injections

1. Can be Ineffective
Intramuscular injections can be futile if the exact site where it is administered is not conducive to the ready absorption of the drug. Absorption is anyway poor with intramuscular injections, especially when you compare with intravenous injections, so wrong choice of site can easily lead to wastage.

2. Side Effects
Intramuscular injections have quite a few side effects. General discomfort is quite common. One may also experience severe pain where injected, numbness and tingling are common too, swelling and redness would certainly occur if the administration was not gentle, there can be drainage at the site, bleeding is possible and there can be allergies depending on the drug as well as the person’s vulnerability to various allergens.

Internet censorship is a contentious issue. Here are the advantages and disadvantages of internet censorship.

List of Advantages of Internet Censorship

1. Good for Underage Kids
The biggest advantage of internet censorship is protecting the rights of minors. Kids are not considered matured enough to choose what they see or what kind of content they access. This is why television shows, movies and games are certified to find the appropriate audience. Kids get exposed to porn, violent videos and all kinds of unnerving content which are not only unpleasant but they can prove to be very discomforting and unsettling for a child’s psyche.

2. Protecting the Rights of Women and Children
Internet censorship aimed at protecting rights of women, children and animals has many advantages. Naming and shaming women, videos of kids being bullied, cruelty against animals and myriad types of real but gruesome contents are available and circulated online which are clearly unacceptable. There are also dedicated attempts to malign the reputations of people, most notably trying to embarrass women by sharing leaked photos and videos.

3. Enhanced Cyber Security
Internet censorship will help cyber security of a country. Law enforcement agencies will be able to keep an unfailing focus on everything that is happening and will be able to prevent crimes or stop them at various phases of development. Websites are banned, digital interfaces are taken down and criminal proceedings are executed against organizations misusing the internet but there are still fraud transactions, identity thefts and the huge deep dark web. Internet censorship may make the virtual world a safer place.

4. Insulating Radical Notions
From Arab Spring to the growth of ISIS, the internet has been used for many positive and negative objectives. Arab Spring may have appeared to be empowering but it lead a country to an unsparing mess. ISIS is growing even today and influencing people around the world. Radical notions cannot be thwarted with internet censorship but one can at least insulate them and prevent them from affecting or inspiring people around the world.

List of Disadvantages of Internet Censorship

1. Not Pragmatic
The biggest problem with internet censorship is that it is perhaps impossible to do. Does anyone really know how to censor the internet in its totality? Banning a website is doable but it may crop up using another proxy server or domain name. You cannot block the whole galactic network unless you simply taken down the service providers.

2. Violates Rights
Internet censorship can be influenced. Truth may be kept away from the public. It can lead to propagandas serving special interests. In any case the government cannot decide or whoever the authority is as to what people want to read, watch or access, as long as it is not illegal.

3. Bad for Economy
Internet censorship may be bad for the economy. The government will have to spend much more. Businesses will have to bear the brunt of the fallout.

Intercropping is quite common around the world and it is not just farmers but also hobbyists and gardeners who practice intercropping. There are advantages and disadvantages of intercropping. You should consider the rewards and challenges before you decide either way.

List of Advantages of Intercropping

1. Greater Income, Greater Yield
Intercropping offers greater financial returns for a farmer. Even if you are growing some produce for your own family or just as part of a hobby, you will have multiple types of produce, which is always a nice outcome. Intercropping will help farmers use the same land as available and yield more as well as diverse produce. This generates more income for the farmer without really taking up any major expenditure. The infrastructure available or the land used remains the same.

2. Insurance against Crop Damage
Intercropping can be the insurance that farmers need, especially when the region is vulnerable to weather extremes. Drought, torrential rain, hurricanes or cyclones and various other weather elements can affect the yield of a given year or season. Having diverse yields allows the farmer to have some income even if the primary crop gets damaged or doesn’t yield as much as expected.

3. Optimum Use of Soil
Intercropping makes the most of the available soil. When anything is grown on a farmland, the crop tends to absorb as much water and nutrients as it needs. There could be more nutrients in the soil under the crops and around. This soil and more specifically the nutrients can be used, by the different varieties of crops. Intercropping also averts soil runoff and can prevent the growth of weeds.

4. Good for Primary Crops
Intercropping is good for the primary crops. The secondary crops can provide shelter and even protect the primary crops. Intercropping also allows you to grow cash crops or any crop that will actually supplement the primary crop in some way.

List of Disadvantages of Intercropping

1. Poor Yields
Intercropping can lead to poorer yields. The crops may not be compatible. The crops may actually compete for the same nourishment and of course water, which may lead to an unmanageable conflict. It is possible that both crops don’t yield enough produce.

2. Costly & Complicated
Intercropping obviously costs more money upfront. There is a need for more fertilizers and water. Harvesting is also more complicated. If something goes horribly wrong with either crop then the other crop may also get damaged.

Instrumentation amplifier is a kind of differential amplifier. It is used primarily for testing instruments and to measure the calibration as well as output of various equipments. Installed or connected with input buffer amplifiers, instrumentation amplifier is widely used in the music industry, by broadcasters and producers around the world.

List of Advantages of Instrumentation Amplifier

1. Accurate Testing and Measurement
Instrumentation amplifier doesn’t require input impedance matching. This makes the amplifier ideal for testing and measuring various equipments. Instrumentation amplifier has a low DC offset. It doesn’t generate any noticeable noise and the drift is considerably low. The open loop gain is very high, the common mode rejection ratio is also very high and the two attributes along with considerable input impedances make them very accurate.

2. Stable and Easy to Use
Instrumentation amplifier is very stable and hence ideal for long term use. It is also perfect for short term use. Instrumentation amplifier has a controlled circuit but it can be easily varied or adjusted by working on the R (gain) value. There is no need to change the circuit or its structure. Since the R (gain) is almost entirely dependent on the resistors used externally, the gain value can be gauged very accurately and can be tweaked by working on the resistors. Choosing or changing the resistor values is more critical here. There is very little erring variance in the output because the common code signal is rejected and any output impedance is essentially the output impedance you would get with a differential amplifier.

3. Reliability of the Setup and Results
Instrumentation amplifier works with the input and hence doesn’t really depend much on the various factors that influence the output at the latter stages. You can understand more about an instrument’s output ability only when you know the input very well. The outputs will anyway depend on many associated and disassociated factors.

4. Highly Scalable
Using instrumentation amplifier allows you to amplify the sound at the input level so even a relatively tiny input can be amplified to a great extent. With amplifications of outputs, there is still a need for substantial input, only then can you amplify to a desired extent.

List of Disadvantages of Instrumentation Amplifier

1. Long Range Transmission Issues
The biggest and perhaps the only concern with instrumentation amplifier is the superimposing of the original wave when the sound or noise gets transmitted over a long range. The system will depend on special cables that can cancel this noise or superimposition.

Most countries in the world have institutionalized inflation targeting. The central bank is primarily responsible to keep an unfailing focus on inflation. The executive or the elected government has a select committee in most countries keeping a daily tab on fluctuations inflation rates. The legislative, parliamentarians or senators also have policies in the pipeline or as backups to counter uncontrolled inflation. The practice has been in place for almost fifty years now where countries want to keep a check on inflation. If unchecked, inflation can wreak havoc on the economy and the future of the country.

Two measures are used in inflation targeting. One is consumer price index or CPI and the other is wholesale price index or WPI. Both indices are tracked and studied every day. Over the years, the major stock exchanges of the worlds, investors, traders and anyone who runs a business along with every aware citizen have been watchful of their local, regional and national inflation rates. Every major central bank in the world announces publicly the rate which they are trying to cap the inflation for a given period of time. Political parties and elected representatives also take public stands on whether the rate is achievable or if it is impractical. Inflation targeting has its benefits and there are challenges as a result. Here are the inflation targeting advantages and disadvantages.

List of Advantages of Inflation Targeting

1. Balancing Predictability and Expectations
Inflation targeting instills predictability. If one was to take a broader view of the world, then situations will appear to be relatively predictable. The moment one delves into the natural upheavals in microenvironments, then everything can turn topsy-turvy in no time. People lose jobs every day, businesses open and many shut every week. Companies make profits and organizations go bankrupt every month. With no check on inflation, people and organizations would not know what to expect. Employees will demand higher wages. Companies will not know what kind of costs they will have to bear. The agricultural sector will be in losses. The markets will be on an uncertain ride. The whole economy may look clueless and unorganized. With inflation targeting, some sense of normalcy, calm and predictability can be attained.

2. Preventing Bubbles and Fuelling Sustainable Growth
Inflation targeting can help avert disasters. One sector that plays a dominant role in the economy changing its policies can have an impact on the whole nation. The principal foundation of supply and demand works in all industries. If any sector is allowed a complete free hand at reviewing their production, selling prices and where they sell, then economic booms and busts will become a more frequent reality. Economies have periods of growth and there are lulls. But economies need to be monitored and controlled as much as possible to avoid unsubstantiated growth and then bursts of bubbles. Inflation is not a definitive indication of growth. Inflation if unchecked will lead to unsustainable growth and an inevitable recession.

3. Preventing Economic Collapse
Without inflation targeting, costs can skyrocket. What is affordable today may not be so tomorrow. Essentials may become unaffordable. Rising costs will hamper every life in the nation. Families would struggle to keep up with the rising costs and eventually there will be a complete economic chaos.

List of Disadvantages of Inflation Targeting

1. Unrealistic in Nature
Inflation targeting can become unrealistic. The very nature of an economy, especially the large ones, is that it takes a life of its own. The economy will react and be influenced by thousands of factors and it is not possible to always counter so many influencing elements. Hence, in an attempt to target a certain inflation rate or to keep it within a certain limit, central banks and governments take measures that prove to be wrong. Many a time in the past and in developed nations, governments and the central banks have not only failed to contain inflation but their attempts have led to more problems.

2. Against Development
Inflation targeting is panned by many as against development. Every time there has been a major developmental phase in any part of the world, inflation has followed. It is not entirely possible to keep the inflation in check at all times. Even today, there are places in every country where inflation targeting simply doesn’t work. It must be accepted that there are macroeconomic scenarios and microeconomic realties. Not always can the central banks micromanage. In fact, it is almost impossible to micromanage when economies are worth billions and in some cases trillions of dollars.

3. Side Effects
Inflation targeting can be hazardous for a country in the long term. It can render various industries to become uncompetitive. The governments may take up too much of the onus or the financial burden of keeping inflation under check. This can lead to higher fiscal deficits, poor welfare policies or stimulus packages and eventually the economy may cease to remain as free flowing as is needed.

There are many types of reasoning of which two are very common and popular. They are inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. The latter was made universally popular by author Arthur Conan Doyle with his iconic detective Sherlock Holmes who used deductive reasoning to solve crimes or at least to get further in his investigation. Inductive reasoning is the opposite in many ways.

Deductive reasoning allows you to have a cluster of observations and then you deduce the various scenarios or break them down to get to a specific observation whereby you get led to a conclusion studying the various possibilities. Inductive reasoning allows you to take an observation and then go forward to apply that to various similar circumstances and at times different scenarios.

List of Advantages of Inductive Reasoning

1. Gamut of Probabilities
The biggest advantage of inductive reasoning is that you get to work with probabilities. Not all probabilities will be true or even possible but you do get various options. When you have to gauge an idea or develop a perception with very little material at hand, which could be observations or experience, then you need a starting point. Inductive reasoning gets you to that starting point. Inductive reasoning is used consciously and naturally by people in all walks of life. From friends to peers, we tend to use inductive reasoning to judge people. From professional challenges to chores at home, we resort to inductive reasoning to develop our perceptions and it also influences how we approach these tasks.

2. Fuels further Exploration
Inductive reasoning begins with a specific observation or inference. It fuels more exploration to test if the judgment or probable inference is right or wrong. In the process, anyone who uses inductive reasoning will explore the given context, the realm and try or test different scenarios. This kind of exploration is not only good for the purpose of investigation or studying probabilities but it also helps the person indulging in inductive reasoning to understand how accurate or inaccurate the initial assessments and inferences have been.

List of Disadvantages of Inductive Reasoning

1. Limited in Scope and Inaccurate Inferences
Inductive reasoning is very limited. It begins with a single observation or an inference drawn from very specific and alike situations. This cannot possibly lead anyone to a fair judgment or accurate inference in a diverse world. Deductive reasoning amasses observations and then gets specific and even then it goes wrong at times. Inductive reasoning begins with something specific and then tries to generalize, which will go wrong more often than frequent.

Have you ever noticed that the same politicians are on the ballot year after year? If congress gets such low approval ratings, why do the overwhelming majority of sitting representatives keep getting reelected The answer often comes down to the advantages of incumbency, which are numerous, however there are also many disadvantages that come from being a know entity.

Advantages of Incumbency

1. Well known
Holding an elected office, whether it’s a Senator or local PTA President, bestows upon the owner a certain amount of prominence among their constituents. When it comes time to vote, name recognition is one of the primary benefits of incumbency, especially in more obscure races. This association is often enough to overcome challenges from more obscure rivals.

2. Institutional Support
By running from within the system, officials can use many of the advantages that come with their office. Interest groups and other supporters are much more likely to get behind someone with a proven track record of responding to their needs than an unknown challenger. Also, there are many tools and resources available to office holders through the system of support behind the organization, like voter databases as well as contact information, that can be used to their advantage.

3. Fund Raising
Connections with powerful constituencies and the power to influence decisions on their behalf often allows incumbents to raise far more money than those who are working from outside the system. Historical precedent and data confirms that elected officials are often able to out raise and spend their opponents in races that require fund raising.

Disadvantages of Incumbency

1. Proven Track Record
Many upstarts find their opening to elected office by running against either the personal or official track record of their opponent. While this goes both ways, any controversial decision an office holder makes is potential ammunition in the hands of their challenger.

2. Voter Fatigue
When things aren’t going well, theres a natural inclination to blame those at the top, whether they deserve it or not. Incumbent office holders often face electorates that are either angry about the state of things beyond the official’s control or apathetic about their leadership.

3. Enemies
When you are responsible for making decisions, the outcome may not be palatable to some of the stakeholders. Come election time, there are likely to remember. When these constituencies are wealthy corporations or powerful individuals, it can make it that much harder to hold onto office when they are actively working against you.