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Negatives and Positives

Pivot tables are program tools that allow users to summarize or reorganize rows or columns of data. They are usually found in database tables and spreadsheets, allowing for information to be obtained from the report without the need for the file to be altered.

Here are some of the advantages and disadvantages of using a tool like a pivot table in your tables.

List of Advantages for Pivot Tables

1. They allow you to see how the data works.
Pivot tables are one of the only tools available to users that can provide deep insights into analytics data. Multiple reports can be generated with this tool off the same collected data within a single file.

2. It can work with SQL exports.
If the pivot table is being used on Microsoft Excel, then the tool is able to work with any SQL export.

3. The data is easier to segment.
Analytics that are gathered into a spreadsheet or database are easier to segment thanks to pivot tables.

4. You can create instant data.
Whether you program equations directly into the pivot table or you rely on formulas, instant data can be created with this tool.

List of Disadvantages for Pivot Tables

1. It can be a time-consuming venture.
For most programs, pivot tables can create the data needed to understand metrics, but the tool doesn’t include calculation options in many instances. That means the collected data must be manually calculated or equations must be manually inputted and that takes time.

2. There are no automatic updates.
Unless users run their reports every day with their pivot tables, they are flying blind when it comes to their metrics or analytics. Programs with pivot tables do not offer a dashboard of information that is easily summarized.

3. Older computers can struggle to present data.
If the spreadsheet or database is quite large, older technologies can struggle to produce the required data. Some users may even see their equipment crash because the requirements are too extensive for its processing power.

4. It takes time to learn them.
It might be fairly easy to learn how to use the pivot table, but then you’ve got to figure out how to present that data in a usable fashion. Most spreadsheets don’t focus on providing a good user experience when it comes to their pivot tables.

Pivot tables are an advantage for small datasets and a disadvantage for large spreadsheets. By taking these advantages and disadvantages into account, it becomes possible to easily organize spreadsheet-based data and then use it.

For long time now pineapple has been loved because of its numerous benefits as well as its sweet taste. However to some people too much pineapple might do them more harm than good. Here are the advantageous and disadvantages of pineapple juice.

The Advantages of Pineapple Juice

1. It Contains Bromelain.
Bromelain is a protein digesting hormone which has an anti-inflammatory property. Hence drinking pineapple juice boosts quick recovery from swelling, bruising and sports injuries. Pineapple also has a chemical that prevents blood clotting and promotes cell rejuvenation.

2. Boosts the Body’s Immune System.
Pineapple juice has been said to help the body fight against many diseases and health conditions. For instance, it helps the body fight against cancer as the bromelain inhibits the growth of cancerous cells during chemotherapy. The juice is also very rich in vitamin c which is an important factor used to lower the risks of cataracts and heart diseases. Pineapple also boosts fertility both in women and men and reduces hypertension. Additionally the vitamin A, magnesium as well as selenium found in the juice help boost the immune system in general.

3. Relieves Constipation And Bloating.
Since bromelain breaks down protein, it speeds up the digestion process and as a result preventing one from feeling bloated leading to a healthier gut. Pineapple is also a natural diuretic hence helps in flushing out toxins.

The Disadvantages of Pineapple Juice

1. Bromelain Might Cause Miscarriages.
Pineapple juice is not recommended for pregnant women as it might cause contraction of the uterus and consequently a miscarriage. Bromelain has also been said to cause abortions.

2. Has High Sugar Content.
Normally when making pineapple juice there is no need for one to add any sweetener since pineapple itself is already sweet. Pineapple have a high sugar content level and hence are not to be taken in excess as it can cause gingivitis and cavities. It is should also be avoided by those who are overweight or diabetic.

3. Can Cause Allergic Reactions.
Some individual who are allergic to pineapple might experience swelling of the mouth, throat, face and tongue as well as itching. In severe cases it can cause difficulty in breathing or even lead to anaphylactic shock.

Pineapple is good but only in recommended amounts. Avoid having too much of it as it can land you into serious trouble. Also opt for the natural freshly squeezed juice for you to enjoy all the benefits. Also make sure to seek medical advice in case you are pregnant or have any health condition.

Traditionally pine nuts were used to cure intestinal and stomach problems. Besides curing intestinal and stomach problems, pine nut has its advantages and disadvantages. They include the following.

The Pros of Pine Nuts

1. Antioxidant
Pine nuts have a high concentration of antioxidants. According to studies, pine nuts contain antioxidants believed to get rid of all free radicals in the body. Antioxidants prevent oxidation from taking place and free radicals from freely moving about which would otherwise cause damage to body cells and arteries.

2. Reduces Bad Cholesterol In The Body
According to studies it was discovered that pine nuts have the ability to reduce LDL levels in the body. Low-density lipoprotein or LDL which is also referred as bad cholesterol exposes one to cardiovascular diseases and other health complication. The pinolenic acid found in pine nuts when concentrated lowers the levels of LDL in the body as it stimulates the liver to burn more LDL which consequently reduced cholesterol levels.

Besides being good for the heart due to their high levels of mono-saturated fats, pine nuts also contain oleic acid. The high amounts of oleic acid found in the nuts assist the liver in getting rid of harmful toxins form the body.

3. Suppresses Appetite
Pine nut when consumed, they suppresses appetite hence it is good for those watching their diets. because it increases the levels of the so-called satiety hormones it reduces the overall intake of food as the body is made to believe that it is satisfied and full.

4. Used In Oil Production
Pine nuts are extracted to produce pine oil which is well known for its mild and nutty flavor. In southwest America, pine nuts are used to make pinon which is a very special flavor of coffee. Pine nuts are also regularly used in vegetarian, meat and fish dishes as a dietary fiber.

The Cons of Pine Nuts

1. Might Cause Allergies
Individual who are allergic to peanuts or the nuts family in general can get an allergic reaction from pine nuts as well. It causes itchiness, rashes, hives, watery eyes, running nose, dizziness, vomiting and abdominal pains if ingested or gotten in contact with. Therefore it is recommended for one to check with their doctor first before using anything related to pine nuts.

2. Bitter Taste
Some individuals have said to have been left with a bitter taste in their mouths after consuming pine nuts. This symptom can go away after a while but it can also last for hours.

In broad terms, phenomenological research refers to researching how an individual perceives the meaning of an event, as opposed to how the event exists beyond the perception of people. This form of research endeavors to understand what a group of people felt during a phenomenon. Perceptions, perspectives, and understandings are all going to be analyzed, and then used to create an understanding of what it’s like to experience an event.

Deeply rooted in philosophy, this form of research is certainly not without its benefits. At the same time, there are some downsides you will need to keep in mind.

The Pros of Phenomenological Research

When it comes to phenomenological research pros and cons, here are some of the pros that are important to understand:

1. Unique Perspectives
To be sure, there is some value to be found in focusing research on how people perceive an event or phenomena, rather than simply how the phenomena exists in a vacuum.

2. Understanding
Perhaps the biggest benefit of phenomenological research is the fact that it can provide us with a profound, detailed understanding of a single phenomena.

3. Rich Data
Culled from enough individuals, the data one can receive through phenomenological research is rich and impressive. This is a form of research that allows for a truly unique approach to understanding a phenomena.

The Cons of Phenomenological Research

While there are a number of uses with phenomenological research, you can’t say there aren’t some notable downsides:

1. Subjectivity
Establishing the reliability and validity of the approaches can be challenging, which makes subjective research difficult.

2. Bias
Researcher-induced bias can influence studies, and this is particularly true with phenomenological research.

3. Pure Bracketing
Interference with the interpretation of the data can lead to a number of headaches in trying to establish and maintain pure bracketing.

4. Presentation
Presenting the findings of this research is more often than not difficult, if not impossible. The results of such research can prove to be highly qualitative, which makes it hard to present the findings in a fashion practitioners would consider to be useful.

5. Typical
Is it even possible with phenomenological research to say that the experiences are typical? Considering the fact that this form of research generally works with small groups, it can be dubious to claim the results are typical in any meaningful way. One can certainly make an educated guess, but in the broader world of research, this isn’t enough for many.

Positron Emission Tomography majorly know as PET scans are a relatively new forms of medical imaging that begun to be used in clinical settings around 1990s. A diagnostic PET scan is used by physicians to see the biochemical changes occurring within a patient while a metabolic PET scan is used to diagnose, stage and follow-up on the treatments administered. Diseases and illnesses often affect a patient’s biochemistry and these changes can only be detected by conducting PET scans. And just like other forms of medical imaging, a PET scan comes with its pros and cons. They include the following.

The Pros of Pet Scans

1. Since it can study bodily functions through biochemical processes, the scans are able to detect diseases before the symptoms and signs show hence they are more effective compared to the other imaging tests.

2. Since it studies metabolic functions of a patient, PET imaging can be used as an alternative to biopsy and also other exploratory surgeries conducted to determine how far a disease has spread.

3. Its ability to differentiate between non-cancerous and cancerous tumors, PET scans are the most precise medical tools to help minimize the number of unnecessary surgeries done because of wrong staging data and diagnosis.

4. PET scans are effective for diagnosing early stages of certain neurological illnesses such as Alzheimer’s disease, epilepsy and other mental illnesses.

5. PET scans are the best options for those people scared of getting infection from medical procedures.

6. As compared to other forms of CT scans, PET scans are a bit safer as the radiation dosage one is exposed to is relatively low.

The Cons of Pet Scans

Regardless of its numerous advantages, PET scans also has its disadvantages.

1. Even though the radioactive elements used in these scans are short lived it might cause some complications especially to pregnant patients.

2. Even though the radioactive components used in the scans are not long lasting it is still exposure to radioactive rays which is not good and which also means there is only a number of times one can undergo PET imaging.

3. Since it is a new procedure, it is quiet expensive compared to other forms of medical imaging. They also require a cyclotron which is an expensive machine used to create radioisotopes that are used to produce the radioactive rays required for imaging and thus is a very expensive treatment to come by.

Also another problem with PET imaging is that the sensitivity of this diagnostic tool is too high. In case a patient was suffering from chemical imbalance for instance those who are diabetic or just ate something before undergoing the procedure, the likelihood of PET imaging false results is high.

Before technology made some major changes to accounting options, particularly in terms of software, the periodic inventory system was highly regarded. It wasn’t a perfect system, but in the end, many felt that it didn’t need to be. They would make the case that the downsides are significantly outweighed by the benefits of using the periodic inventory system. What is perhaps most interesting about this is the fact that there are still many, many proponents of a period inventory system in the present. The major competitor for period inventory systems are perpetual inventory systems. The two are inevitably compared, and there are a number of companies and individuals who believe that a period inventory system is the right way to go for their business.

However, just as many people will argue that the periodic inventory system is a massive waste of time. They will further suggest that when it comes to making a long-term investment in the way your business remains organized, you can’t afford to deal in something that has the potential to be inaccurate. In order to make a decision for yourself, you are going to want to take the subject of periodic inventory system pros and cons seriously.

The Pros of the Periodic Inventory System

Here are some of the pros of a public inventory system that you can keep in mind:

1. Easy to Implement.
One of the biggest benefits to the presence of a periodic inventory system is the way it is remarkably easy to implement. You can add this system to your business in hardly any time at all. Certainly, it is less stressful than any other option for maintaining an awareness of your inventory. Physically counting the inventory is something you can literally do whenever you feel like it. Most businesses that work with this system will roll it out once a year. However, in the end, you are free to define “periodic” as you please. Remember that the orders placed throughout your year will be added to the ending inventory for last year.

2. Cheap to Implement.
Again, if you want the easiest system possible, then the periodic inventory system is going to be absolutely perfect. You don’t have to invest in costly software solutions with this option. Technically, you don’t have to invest much of anything, except for the time involved in taking a physical inventory. Furthermore, as long as you are willing to put in that time, your costs are never technically going to go up either.

3. Ideal for Smaller Businesses.
As you can imagine, very small businesses are perhaps the best fit for a system such as this. We’re talking about 1-2 people, a limited inventory, and only a few dozen orders placed throughout the year. Larger businesses can use this system, too, but things can naturally get more complicated, when we start talking about multiple employees, and thousands of orders per year.

The Cons of the Periodic Inventory System

Here are some of the cons of periodic inventory systems that you will want to appreciate:

1. Inaccuracies.
One of the worst things you can say about a periodic inventory system is the fact that you are dealing with something that can be highly inaccurate. Keep in mind that an accounting record is modified at the end of your year, in order to reflect your physical inventory count. Because of this, the system is inherently flawed. You can’t ensure accuracy at all times. You can only be sure of the accuracy to within a reasonable degree. For some businesses, this may not be a problem, particularly if we are dealing with a very small business. However, larger businesses are going to need to be aware that when you use this system, inaccuracies aren’t the norm, but they aren’t rare either.

2. Labor Intensive.
If you have a very limited inventory, with only a few dozen orders for the year, using the periodic inventory system isn’t all that difficult. You can even punch things in to an Excel document. However, when your business grows, a periodic inventory system can prove to be highly problematic. Taking a physical inventory can amount to a time demand that you really shouldn’t try to meet. Particularly with small businesses, it can be challenging to find the time and energy to make sure a periodic inventory system is handled correctly. This is where your mistakes can start to appear.

3. Exercising Control.
One more thing to consider is that exercising control over your inventory is something that is going to become a good deal more difficult. Gauging the degree of theft can become more difficult, as well.


The periodic inventory system is clearly not lacking in benefits, particularly when the stakes are small. However, for larger businesses, some challenging factors can begin to plague the integrity of the system. This is definitely a complex subject.

Managers, as well as, employees often wonder why organizations do performance appraisals. Anyone who has been given or received performance appraisal could possibly say that it is a complete waste of time as it is ineffective. So what is performance appraisal exactly? Performance appraisal is the evaluation done on employees in regard to their job performances over a certain period of time. It is like a report card showing how one has been performing during the past year. So, is it necessary? Below are advantages and disadvantages of performance appraisal

Advantages Of Performance Appraisals

1. Improves Performance.
Performance appraisals major focus on improving employees performance as it analyses and evaluates the opportunity factors like social process and technology.

2. Employee Development.
Performance appraisal helps determine who is in need of more training as it gives information regarding the strengths and potentials as well as weaknesses of the employees.

3. Corrects Deficiencies.
Performance appraisal detects employee deficiency and suggests on corrective measures to be taken.

4. Career Growth.
Appraisal serves as a tool for the employees’ career planning and development as it assists in preparing each employee’s SWOT analysis.

5. Promotion.
Appraisals help the management determine which employee is to be promoted, transferred or rewarded.

6. Motivation.
Appraisals motivate employees to work harder.

Disadvantages of Performance Appraisal

1. Prone To Biasness.
Some raters may rate one depending on the general impression one gives. For instance, one might be rated high on all criteria even though he/she just performed well in a single area. The rater’s biases and prejudices also affect the process. These cases are seen when a one gets underrated because of sex, religion, favoritism, appearance, and race.

2. Contrast Error.
Performance appraisal is always based specific standards, however, when one gets rated without taking the standards into account a contrast error occurs. This also can occur if the rater looks at an employee’s current performance based on the past performance.

3. Generalization Tendency Error.
This occurs when a rater rates everyone within a narrow range because he/she thinks that the employees are all on the same level averagely.

4. Severity Or Leniency.
Appraisals demand that an evaluator should objectively draw a conclusion regarding an employee’s performance.

5. Sampling Error.
This occurs when a rater uses a small portion of an employee’s work to draw a conclusion.

6. Regency And Primary Errors.
Employee behavior at the start of the appraisal period and at the end can affect the process a time. For instance, a salesperson’s performance varies with season, at times it can be low and a time high.

Overall, appraisals are good only if the management operating them stick with their standards otherwise it will pointless.

Mint is packed with antioxidants, and drinking peppermint tea is thought to have a ton of health advantages. Like all things, this tea also comes with some disadvantages. Read on to find out more about the pros and cons of this popular beverage.

List of Advantages of Peppermint Tea

1. Menthol is present in peppermint tea, and this aromatic decongestant can help break up mucus and phlegm. When you have a sore throat, menthol can also help cool it.
2. The rosmarinic acid contained in peppermint tea acts as an anti-inflammatory. It can help relieve the symptoms of seasonal allergies.
3. Women who breastfeed often have pain in their nipples as the act itself can cause damage. Cooled peppermint tea can help prevent cracking and pain in the nipples of breastfeeding mothers.
4. Peppermint tea can help freshen breath and even is an anti-microbial agent in the mouth.
5. Peppermint has long been used to calm indigestion and upset stomachs. Bile flow is increased, which will encourage good digestion.
6. The pain that comes from bloating and gas will be decreased with peppermint tea, as will the amount of flatulence.
7. While taking pure menthol is dangerous and can make you very sick, peppermint tea is a great way to enjoy the health benefits of mint without danger as the mint is so diluted.
8. Patients with IBS often find that their symptoms decrease when drinking peppermint tea on a regular basis.

List of Disadvantages of Peppermint Tea

1. If you have digestive problems that are related to gastroesophageal reflux disease then drinking peppermint tea can actually make this condition worse. Never try to self-diagnose and treat your symptoms without the approval of a doctor.
2. If you currently have or had gallstones in the past then drinking peppermint tea can exacerbate them.
3. Young children and babies should not be exposed to peppermint tea, as it can actually inhibit breathing by causing spasms.
4. Large amounts of peppermint tea during pregnancy can actually cause a woman to have a miscarriage.
5. Some prescription medications can interact with peppermint tea, causing the medications to not be as effective or efficient.
6. As the FDA does not control the production of herbal teas, there is the chance of contamination, especially from pesticides. Always make sure you purchase your tea from a reputable source.
7. Acid reflux is exacerbated by drinking peppermint tea, which will only worsen your symptoms and pain.

Peppermint tea is not without some wonderful advantages, but always make sure that what you’re putting in your body is healthy.

As businesses grow and expand, managers are faced with a challenge of choosing a project that can warrant a further investment. Planning on how to allocate capital is a very important skill that managers should learn to avoid spending money on unyielding investments as this will be a wastage of capital. Payback period is a capital management concept which refers to a certain period of time which will be required for a project to generate revenue that will cover the initial revenues invested by the company during the start of that project. For instance, if the initial capital used to start the project was $60000 and the revenue that the project is bringing in each year is $20000 then that means that the payback period of that project would be 3 years.

The choice between two or more investments regarding which one to go with is usually the one with the shortest payback period. This is determined by simply dividing the amount used to start the project and the amount that the project is generating per year. A project with shorter payback period implies higher returns. Numerous companies have maximum acceptable payback period however when they decide on which investment to go with, they will consider projects with less payback period than them. So, what are the advantages and disadvantages of payback period?

Advantages Of Payback Period

The method is popularly used by business analysts because of several reasons;

1. It Is Simple
A significant percentage of companies use employees with different backgrounds to analyze capital projects which is not only biased but a difficult process to understand. On the other hand, payback method looks at the number of years which make it simple and easy to understand.

2. Offers Quick Evaluation
Determining which projects can generate fast returns is important to companies especially those with limited resources. Managers of such companies use this method to make a quick evaluation regarding projects with the small investment and short payback period.

Other benefits include:

  • The term is universal hence can be understood by anyone.
  • It shows the importance of considering liquidity when making investment decisions.
  • It offers the shortest approach to calculating capital expenditure.

Disadvantages Of Payback Method

1. Ignores Time Value of Money
The method ignores the time value of money. A project’s cash inflow might be irregular. Investments are usually long term and continue to generate income even long after they have paid back their initial start-up capital. However, if a project has a long payback period it gets overlooked.

Other disadvantages include:

  • The method emphasizes on liquidity rather than profitability.
  •  Only cash returns within the period are considered.

In paternalistic leadership, people may feel like the situation that they are in is democratic as workers are encouraged to discuss and comment and their questions are answered. However, decisions will be up to the person at top. To know more about the advantages and disadvantages of paternalistic leadership, read on.

List of Advantages of Paternalistic Leadership

1. High employee loyalty due to employees feeling like they are being heard and their needs are met.
2. Good behavior is rewarded by the person at top, often with goods and food.
3. Absenteeism rates and staff turnover will decrease as emphasis is placed on the employee needs.
4. Most decisions will be made with the employees’ best interests taken into consideration
5. Feedback is invited and encouraged, which improves morale and makes employees feel important.
6. There is an open line of communication between the managers and the employees which will keep employees feeling important and satisfied.
7. There is an understanding that the manager wants everyone to succeed, which can result in a lower amount of competition among employees.
8. The manager is given the power to rule from the idea that they are the most capable in making the best decisions for the team, which fosters trust and loyalty with employees.
9. Managers are very involved in the employee’s personal lives, which makes the employee feel more connected at work.

List of Disadvantages of Paternalistic Leadership

1. Just like a parent, managers will sometimes have to discipline the employee in non-traditional ways.
2. Bad decisions from above cause major employee dissatisfaction.
3. The employees will become more and more dependent on the employer, which can cause an increase in necessary supervision in order to get things done in a timely and appropriate manner.
4. If loyalty to the manager is not established quickly then there can be poor staff motivation.
5. Issues can be cased and exacerbated with employee legislation and rights.
6. Employees rely on the leader more than they would in a typical work setting. Because of this, the team can become highly competitive as they all vie for attention and affection.
7. Managers can become blind with their power and make decisions that only benefit themselves.
8. If roles are not well defined and employees do not know what is needed from them there can be power struggles and internal issues.

As you can see, there are many pros and cons to this type of leadership.